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Related: 1800s - industry - kitsch - literacy - machine - mass society - pulp - revolution - steam - technology
Mass media and the Industrial Revolution: While some have placed the origins of mass media in the Enlightenment era, I hold that it is a product of the Industrial Revolution and started in the 1830s with the arrival of advertising-supported cheap newspapers and mass literacy. [May 2006]
Kitsch and the Industrial Revolution: Kitsch is a by-product of the Industrial Revolution which made it possible to mass-produce cultural artifacts. See also the introduction to this entry, explaining the relation between Baudelaire's views on art consumption and the idea of kitsch. Since the Industrial Revolution the Mona Lisa has become both high art (in its original form) and kitsch (in the numerous engravings and reproductions). [May 2006]
Romanticism: Concurrent with the industrial revolution there developed an intellectual and artistic hostility towards the new industrialisation known as the Romantic Movement. Its major exponents included the artist and poet William Blake, and poets William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats and Shelley. The movement stressed the importance of "nature" in art and language, in contrast to the 'monstrous' machines and factories. In Blake's words they were the, "Dark satanic mills" of his poem And did those feet in ancient time. [May 2006]
New media: new media - phonograph - high-volume printing
Compare: pre-industrial society and culture - post-industrial society and culture
DefinitionThe Industrial Revolution is the name given to the massive social, economic, and technological change in 18th century Great Britain. It commenced with the introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered, automated machinery (primarily in textile manufacturing). The technological and economic progress of the Industrial Revolution gained momentum with the introduction of steam-powered ships, boats and railways. In the 19th Century it spread throughout Western Europe and North America, eventually impacting the rest of the world. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution
Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state. This social and economic change is closely intertwined with technological innovation, particularly the development of large-scale energy production and metallurgy. Industrialisation is also related to some form of philosophical change, or to a different attitude in the perception of nature, though whether these philosophical changes are caused by industrialisation or vice-versa is subject to debate. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrialization [Oct 2005]
Second Industrial RevolutionThe Second Industrial Revolution (1871-1914) resulted in the "mass society". This transformation involved significant developments within the chemical, electrical, petroleum, and steel industries. By 1870, the global market was already saturated with manufactured goods. Increasing production compounded the problem and was a factor leading up to the Long Depression and the so-called "New Imperialism".
One might see the immediate beginnings of this period in the German annexation of Lorraine (an industrial area) following the Franco-Prussian War. In any case, Germany came to replace Britain as the world's primary industrial nation.
In the United States of America the Second Industrial Revolution is commonly associated with electrification as pioneered by Thomas Alva Edison. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Industrial_Revolution [Jul 2004]
Printing in the industrial age
The Gutenberg press was much more efficient than manual copying, as testament to its effectiveness, it was essentially unchanged from the time of its invention until the Industrial Revolution, some three hundred years later.
The invention of the steam powered press is credited to Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer in 1812 made it possible to print tens of thousands of copies of a page in a day.
Koenig and Bauer sold two of their first models to The Times in London in 1814, capable of 1,100 impressions per hour. The first edition so printed was on November 28, 1814. Koenig and Bauer went on to perfect the early model so that it could print on both sides of a sheet at once. This began to make newspapers available to a mass audience, and from the 1820s changed the nature of book production, forcing a greater standardization in titles and other metadata.
Later on in the middle of the 19th century the rotary press (invented in 1843 in the United States by Richard M. Hoe) allowed millions of copies of a page in a single day. Mass production of printed works flourished after the transition to rolled paper, as continuous feed allowed the presses to run at a much faster pace. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printing_press#Printing_in_the_industrial_age [Oct 2005]
Kitsch [...]Harold Rosenburg described Kitsch as "the daily art of our time ... all those cheap, cute, sentimental artifacts found everywhere in western industrial societies ... an inevitable consequence of the industrial revolution, a mass produced art for a middle class philistine in their tastes because they lack formal education and have lost contact with traditional folk culture." --Harold Rosenburg
Popular culture [...]Some scholars, such as Russell Nye (1970) and Herbert Gans (1974), equate the materials of popular culture to the mass media, and therefore maintain that popular culture did not exist prior to the Industrial Revolution, the rise of a large middle-class segment of society, and the concomitant rise of rapid printing.
Science fictionThe notion of Progress was central, as the fruits of the Industrial Revolution spread worldwide.
Craft... The Industrial Revolution and the increasing mechanisation of production processes gradually reduced or eliminated many of the roles professional craftspeople ...
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