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Game theory is a branch of mathematics that uses models to study interactions with formalized incentive structures ("games"). It has applications in a variety of fields, including economics, evolutionary biology, political science, and military strategy. Game theorists study the predicted and actual behavior of individuals in games, as well as optimal strategies. Seemingly different types of interactions can exhibit similar incentive structures, thus all exemplifying one particular game.
John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern first formalized the subject in 1944 in their book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior.
The psychological theory of games, which originates with the psychoanalytic school of transactional analysis, remains a largely unrelated area. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_theory [Jun 2004]
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