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Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475 - 1564)

The Fall from Grace (1508-12), from the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel - Michelangelo

Biography

Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet.

Michelangelo is famous for creating the fresco ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, as well as the Last Judgment over the altar, and "The Martyrdom of St. Peter" and "The Conversion of St. Paul" in the Vatican's Cappella Paolina; among his many sculptures are those of David and the Pieta, as well as the Virgin, Bacchus, Moses, Rachel, Leah, and members of the Medici family; he also designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelangelo_Buonarroti [Aug 2005]

The Fall from Grace (1508-12)

The fall refers to the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, as recorded in the biblical book of Genesis, and the consequences of that expulsion. Interpretations of the account vary a great deal within Islam, Judaism, and Christianity.

Although the "Fall" is not mentioned by name in the Old Testament, the expulsion from Eden is recorded in Genesis 3, and served as the foundation of the Christian teachings of St. Paul in Romans 5:1219 and 1 Corinthians 2122, and, in particular, the Christian doctrine of original sin. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_%28religion%29 [Jun 2005]

Genesis
According to Genesis, God created a garden in the land of Eden, and placed Adam and Eve in the garden. He placed a number of trees in the garden, which were good to eat. He also placed two trees which are named specially in the text: the Tree of life and the Tree of knowledge of good and evil. Adam and Eve were told that they were free to eat of any tree in the garden, but not of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, because if they did, they would die.

For an unspecified period of time, Adam and Eve obeyed the rule. However, one day, a serpent came to Eve and told her that God had lied, that the fruit would not kill her, and that he only told her not to eat the fruit because if she did, she would become like God, knowing the difference between good and evil.

According to the account, Eve was convinced. She ate the fruit, and went to Adam and convinced him to try it, too. After eating the fruit, both Adam and Eve realized for the first time that they were naked, became ashamed, and made clothes to cover themselves.

Later, God came walking through the Garden looking for Adam and Eve, but could not find them, because they were hiding. God called out to Adam, "Where are you?"

Adam responded, "I heard your voice, and I was afraid, because I was naked."

God questioned him further, "How did you know you were naked? Did you eat of the fruit of the tree I told you not to eat of?"

Adam admitted that he did, and blamed it on Eve. Eve subsequently blamed it on the serpent.

As a result of these events, God cursed all three. He decided that because mankind knew the difference between good and evil, it would not do for him to live forever. Therefore, he required them to leave the garden, and sent Cherubim to guard the garden and prevent mankind from entering it again to eat from the tree of life.

He cursed the serpent by requiring it to move on its belly. He cursed Eve by giving her pain in childbirth. He cursed Adam by requiring him to work and "eat by the sweat of his brow," and required man to die: "From dust you came, and to dust you will return." --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_%28religion%29#Genesis [Jun 2005]

Last Judgement - Michelangelo

1563: The Roman Catholic council of Trent concludes that sex is bad and denounces paintings calculated to excite lust." Pope Paul IV has clothes painted onto the naked figures in Michelangelo's painting, Last Judgement, in the Sistine Chapel. --to be checked

The Last Judgement was object of a heavy dispute between Cardinal Carafa and Michelangelo: the artist was accused of immorality and intolerable obscenity, having depicted naked figures, with genitals in evidence, inside the most important church of Christianity, so a censorship campaign (known as the "Fig-Leaf Campaign") was organized by Carafa and Monsignor Sernini (Mantua's ambassador) to remove the frescoes. When the Pope's own Master of Ceremonies, Biagio da Cesena, similarly denounced the work by saying that the work was more suited to a bath-house than a chapel, Michelangelo worked his semblance into the scene as Minos, judge of the underworld. It is said that when da Cesena complained to the Pope, the pontiff responded that his jurisdiction did not extend to hell, so the portrait would have to remain. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistine_Chapel [Aug 2004]

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