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Related: cross - Greek - hybrid - transgression - translation - transmission - transport - transubstantiation
See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venn_diagram
Transculturation is a term coined by Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures. In simple terms, it reflects the natural tendency of people (in general) to resolve conflicts over time, rather than exacerbating them. In the modern context, both conflicts and resolutions are amplified by communication and transportation technology —the ancient tendency of cultures drifting or remaining apart has been replaced by stronger forces for bringing societies together. Where tranculturation impacts ethnicity and ethnic issues the term "ethnoconvergence" is sometimes used.
In one general sense, transculturation covers war, ethnic conflict, racism, multiculturalism, interracial marriage, and any other of a number of contexts that deal with more than one culture. In the other general sense, tranculturation is the positive aspect of global phenomena and human events, where resolutions to conflicts are inevitable.
The general processes of transculturation are extremely complex -- steered by powerful forces at the macrosocial level, yet ultimately resolved at the interpersonal level. The driving force for conflict is simple proximity -- boundaries, once separating people (providing for a measure of isolation) become the issue of a conflict when societies encroach upon one another territorially. If a means to co-exist cannot be immediately found, then conflicts can be hostile, leading to a process by which contact between individuals leads to some resolution. Often, history shows us, the processes of co-existence begins with hostilities, and with the natural passing of polarist individuals, comes the passing of their polarist sentiments, and soon some resolution is achieved. Degrees of hostile conflict vary from outright genocidal conquest, to lukewarm infighting between differing politcal views within the same ethnic community. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transculturation [Sept 2005]
See also: cross - culture - hybrid
Transgender is a very complex topic, where definitions are often still shifting. Usually, the only way to find out how exactly a person identifies is to ask them, and sometimes, transgender people either cannot or will not define themselves any more narrowly than transgender, queer, or genderqueer.
Books and articles written about transgender people or culture are often outdated by the time they are published, if they were not already, due to inappropriate and/or outdated questions or premises. Not only psychology and medicine, but also social sciences deal with transgender people, and both start from very different points of view, and offer very different perspectives and use a different nomenclature. The difference is mirrored by the attitude of transgendered people towards transgender issues. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_transgender-related_topics [Dec 2004]
The term transvestism has undergone several changes of meaning since it was coined in the 1910s; and, unfortunately, it is still used in all of these meanings except the very first one. Therefore it is important to find out, whenever the word is encountered, in which particular sense it is used.
To understand the different meanings of transvestism it is necessary to explain the development of the term and the reasons behind the changes of meaning.
Magnus Hirschfeld coined the term transvestism around 1915 in Berlin (from Latin trans- across, over and vestere to dress or to wear). He used it to describe a group of people who habitually and voluntarily wore clothes of the opposite sex. (The distinction between sex and gender had not been made at this time.) Hirschfeld's group of transvestites consisted of both male and female bodied persons with (physically) heterosexual, (physically) homosexual, bisexual and asexual preferences.
Hirschfeld himself was not particularly happy with the term, since he realised that clothes were only an outward sign of a variety of reasons to wear them. In fact, Hirschfeld helped people to achieve the very first name changes and to get the very first sexual reassignment surgery. Hirschfeld's transvestites therefore were, in today's terms, not only transvestites, but people from all over the transgender spectrum.
Hirschfeld operated very much in a three-gender framework, namely male, female and other or third gender. Included into this third gender were all people who, in today's terms, violated heteronormative rules. Again in today's terms, this is very much equivalent with the queer community, i.e. lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgendered people. Therefore, there was no pressing reason to find different terms for the different shades of Hirschfeld's transvestism.
Hirschfeld also noticed that sexual arousal was often, but by no means always associated with transvestite behaviour, and he also clearly distinguished between transvestism as an expression of a person's "contra-sexual" (transgender) feelings and fetishist behaviour, even if the later involved wearing clothes of the opposite sex.
Today Hirschfeld's use of transvestism is extinct. Today's meaning of transgender is very much equivalent. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transvestism [Dec 2004]
Commonly used as a short form of transsexual or transgendered, e.g. a transwoman, transman, transpeople. The term also serves as an umbrella term to include the entire trans community, although some (such as genderqueer and other gender variant people) do not use labels with the prefix; --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans [Sept 2005]
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