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In 1827 a lengthy article by Sir Walter Scott, entitled `On the Supernatural in Fictitious Composition; and particularly on the Works of E.T.W. Hoffmann’ was printed in The Foreign Quarterly Review. It proved to be influential with regard to Hoffmann’s reception in England; and marked a turning point in the attitude of the Victorian readership towards Hoffmann, which, after having been quite favourable, now became critical. --http://www.petra.demon.co.uk/Hoffmann/Hoffmann.htm#_ftnref16 [Apr 2006]

Jud Süß (1827) - Wilhelm Hauff

Jud Süß is both: a novel written in 1827 by Wilhelm Hauff, a British movie made in 1934, and a German movie made in 1940.

The original novel was about a businessman who believes he is a Jew, but whose unfair business practices result in the betrayal of an innocent girl. Consequently, he is arrested and sentenced to be hanged under 18th century anti-Semitic laws. While he waits to be executed, he discovers that he is not Jewish, but he prefers to face his sentence rather than turning his back to the community he grew in.

The first film adaptation of "Jud Süß" was made in 1934 by Michael Balcon, head of production at Gaumont British in the 1930s. British censors wouldn't have allowed a movie to openly criticize the prosecution of Jews, since it would have appeared as an attack of German policy, and led to a diplomatic incident. The movie had little success in Europe or America, but a great political impact in Vienna, where it was banned. Unlike the 1940 version, the 1934 version is closer to the novel, and a condemnation of anti-Semitism, not a justification of it.

This novel is against anti-Semitism, but the famous German movie adaptation made in 1940 by Veit Harlan under the supervision of Joseph Goebbels is quite different, and all about "ethnic cleansing". The 1940 Süß, played by Ferdinand Marian, is different of the original character on the following points: He is a real Jew; he represented Nazi propaganda stereotypes of Jews having hooked noses and greasy hair.

The 1940 film achieved Nazi objectives and was a great success in Germany and abroad. Anti-Jewish violence was reported after its projection in Marseilles, for example. The impact of this movie was such that its director, Veit Harlan, received the 1943 Universum Film Archiv award (the UFA was the major commercial German film studio in the early part of the 20th century), and was put on trial after the war but Harlan defended himself by arguing that the Nazis controlled his work. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jud_S%FC%DF [Jan 2005]

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