[<<] 1900 - 1909 [>>]
Parents: 20th century
Related: Art Nouveau (decline of) - futurism - Cubism
Literature: Heart of Darkness (1902) - The Monkey's Paw (1902) - The Confessions of Wanda von Sacher-Masoch (1907) - Hell (1908) - Henri Barbusse
Visual art: Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) - Pablo Picasso
First narrative films: The Great Train Robbery (1903) - Edwin S. Porter - A Trip To The Moon (1902) - Georges Méliès
Psychology and psychopathology: Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901), Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905); Havelock Ellis publishes Sexual Inversion (1901).
By year: 1900 - 1901 - 1902 - 1903 - 1904 - 1905 - 1906 - 1907 - 1908 - 1909
The first years of the 20th century were an age of transition. Influences of the Symbolists artists and Art Nouveau craftsmen were still felt, but the trend was towards the geometric shapes of modernism as displayed in Cubism. [May 2006]
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) - Pablo Picasso
Typical for modern art of the early 20th century Les Desmoiselles (which depicts five prostitutes in a brothel) sacrificed traditional notions of beauty and harmony in favor of dissonance, ugliness and grotesque ambivalence. The work was heavily inspired by African masks.
Births (literary): Anais Nin
Births (other): Luis Buñuel - Oskar Fischinger - George Antheil - Pierre Molinier - Jacques Lacan - Marlene Dietrich - Henri Lefèbvre - Alice Prin (Kiki) - Hans Bellmer - John Willie - Leni Riefenstahl
1900 The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) - Sigmund Freud 1901 Judith I, 1901 - Gustav Klimt 1902 Le Voyage Dans La Lune (A Trip To The Moon) (1902) - Georges Méliès 1903 Electrocuting an Elephant (1903) - Thomas Edison 1904 Neue Forschungen über den Marquis de Sade und seine Zeit - Iwan Bloch 1905 Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905) - Sigmund Freud 1906 first record broadcast over radio 1907 Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907) - Picasso's 1908 Braque and Picasso's first Cubist experiments 1909 The first recorded use of 'marihuana' in the United States
Events and trends
--http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1900s [Mar 2006]
- First aircrafts
- Mass production of automobile
- Wide popularity of home phonograph
Pre-WWI subcultures [...]
In the period before World War I subculture was a small thing, social groupings of hobbyists or a matter of style and philosophy amongst artists and bohemian poets.
One continuing 20th century subculture was Nudism. The first known organized club for nudists, Freilichtpark (Free-Light Park), was opened near Hamburg, Germany in 1903.
Also in Germany, from 1909 onwards there was the beginning of a movement, mainly of young men and then also young women, toward freedom and getting back to nature. They wanted to throw off the strict rules of society and be more open and natural. They were called Wandervogel which can be translated as "hikers", "ramblers" or perhaps "freebird".
In Italy a popular art movement and philosophy called Futurism championed change, speed, violence and machines.
Hairstyles at the beginning of the century were not strict unless you were in a religious order or other controlled circumstances (the military or prison etc.). Both men and women regarded long hair as normal. Men and women had, after all, always had long hair, since prehistory. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_subcultures_in_the_20th_century [Dec 2004]
Moving Pictures [...]The rise of cinema and "moving pictures" in the first decade of the 20th century gave the modern movement an artform which was uniquely its own, and again, created a direct connection between the perceived need to extend the "progressive" tradition of the late 19th century, even if this conflicted with then established norms. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modernism#The_beginning_of_modernism_1890.26ndash.3B1910 [Jun 2004]
Music 1900-1909During this decade, radios brought music to the country and in 1903, the hand-cranked victrola went on the market and many Americans listened to recordings of opera stars. Broadway musicals flourished. Irving Berlin and George M. Cohan opened on Broadway. The Ziegfeld Follies (later, but still Ziegfeld) began in 1907. The waltz was replaced with ballroom dancing (Take time to watch the finale, too). And my favorite, the beer songs like Under the Anheuser Bush. Many memorable Vaudeville or Vaudeville songs were performed at this time, including She's Only a Bird in a Gilded Cage . By the 1900s, Scott Joplin had made ragtime popular by bringing it out of the red-light district onto the legitimate stage. AND, don't forget the silent films. -- http://www.nhmccd.edu/contracts/lrc/kc/decade00.html#music
Eventsfrom A Biased Timeline of the Counter-Culture1900-2 214 Negro lynchings 1900s Start and growth of the Wandervogel movement in Germany 1901 First U.S. legislation to set up building codes, meant to improve living conditions in big city slums First London housing co-op founded: Ealing Tenants Limited Marconi transmits telegraphic radio messages from Cornwall to Newfoundland William Maybach, technical director at the Daimler works, constructs the first Mercedes car J.P. Morgan organizes U.S. Steel Corporation Frank Norris: The Octopus (exposes rr monopolies) Rudolf Steiner founds anthroposophy H.G. Wells: Anticipations predicts car-only motorways (get this) Ragtime jazz develops in U.S. 1902 Coal strike in U.S., May-Oct William James: The Varieties of Religious Experience Enrico Caruso makes his first phonograph recording 1903 Orville and Wilbur Wright successfully fly a powered airplane (first manned flight) First Garden City started, built by co-operative association: Letchworth, England (north of London) 1904 War between Japan and Russia - first time U.S. gets involved as a world power economic recession New York City opens first subway segment 10-hour work day: France first radio transmission of music (Austria) first practical photoelectric cell (Elster) first ultraviolet lamps Rolls-Royce Company founded first telgraphic transmission of photographs New York policeman arrests woman for smoking cigarette in public Jean Jaures issues socialist newspaper "L'Humanite", Paris Ivan Pavlov wins Nobel prize (explain) ?wrong? Freud: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life Max Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism James Barrie: Peter Pan Herman Hesse (27): Peter Camenzind (first book) 1905 June Niagara Movement first meeting, called by W.E.B. Du Bois June I.W.W. (Wobblies) founded, Chicago, by William Haywood, Mother Jones, Father Thomas J. Hagerty, Lucy Parsons, Daniel De Leon, & Eugene V. Debs and 200 others 1905 street fighting in Petersburg crushed by police Sinn Fein Party founded, Dublin Jack London runs for mayor of ?? First Fauve exhibit (Paris) (Matisse, Roualt +) Bohemians of Carmel-by-the-Sea, Calif.: George Sterling, Jack London, Mary Austin, etc. roughing it Jack London: The Road - about hobo life Hermann Hesse: Unterm Rad first regular cinema established (Pittsburgh, Pa), Alternative schools start, U.K.: St. Christopher's (near Letchworth Garden City) Albert Einstein (26): Special Theory of Relativity first neon light signs Nipsell's Farm, Essex: intensive cultivation Debussy: "Golliwogs Cakewalk" 1906 Nightshift work for women internationally forbidden First radio program of voice and music, U.S. First parkway started, Long Island: limited-access highway designed for private-car traffic only, and landscaped Upton Sinclair: The Jungle (Chicago stockyard) -> U.S. Pure Food and Drugs Act Jack London: The Iron Heel F.A. Morton: The Simple Life on Four Acres (fourth in Cottage Farm Series by simple-life publisher A.C. Fifield) Buddy Bolden, 28, the first "king" of New Orleans Storyville music, stops playing 1907 Depression(?) in US: Panic of 1907 causes run on banks stopped by J.P. Morgan's importation of $100 million in gold from Europe Pres. Theodore Roosevelt bars Japanese from immigrating to U.S. First suburb specifically based on the automobile: Country Club District, Kansas City (& at low density) Louis Lumiere develops process for color photography Alice B. Toklas & Gertrude Stein move to Europe First Cubist exhibition, Paris Pablo Picasso (25) : "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" Claude Monet painting water lilies at Giverny Henri Rousseau: "The Snake Charmer" Montessori [explain] Baden-Powell founds Boy Scouts 1908 August Springfield, Illinois: white woman's accusation of Negro rape (later retracted) sets off riot which destroys Negro businesses and ransacks Negro homes; Negro barber and 84 year old Negro man, married to white woman 30 years, lynched; 5000 militia sent in to suppress 1908 First steel and glass building (Berlin factory) General Motors Corporation formed Ford Motor Company produces first Model "T" Fauves works first shown in U.S. Matisse coins the term "Cubism" Gertrude Stein: Three Lives Isadora Duncan becomes popular interpreter of dance "Ashcan School" founded - realistic portrayals of life: Robert Henri, John Sloan, George Luks, William Glackens, George Bellows, Everett Shinn 1909 Commercial manufacture of Bakelite, to be used in plastics Spokane, Washington: 600 Wobblies arrested for free speech Futurist manifesto published, Italy Vassily Kandinsky's first abstract paintings Henri Matisse: Harmony in Red (Red Room) Sergei Diaghilev: first Ballet Russe presentation, Paris
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