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"Method of this work:
literary montage.
I have nothing to say only to show."
(Passagenwerk (1927 - 1940) - Walter Benjamin)

2005, Jul 04; 16:27 ::: History of low culture

Pollice Verso (1872) - Jean-Léon Gérôme

The history of low culture or working class culture can be traced from panem et circenses (bread and circuses) in Roman antiquity, to mass readership starting during the industrial revolution (dime novels), music halls in the 19th century, pulp magazines of the 20th century, exploitation films of the second half of the 20th century.

Low culture has been connected to and an influence on high culture throughout its history. Personally, I find culture that has an ambivalence (is it high, or low, or both?) the most interesting culture [Jul 2005]

bad taste - blockbuster - B-movie - burlesque - circus - commercial - camp - cheap - comics - convention - common - culture - decorative arts - derivative - design - dime novels - entertainment - ephemera - escapism - exploitation film - genre fiction - horror - kitsch - low budget - lurid - mass - melodrama - men's magazines - music hall - paracinema - peepshow - pop - popular - popular culture - popular music - pop music - pornography - pulp fiction - proletariat - prurient - romance - sensationalism - sexploitation - shocking - stereotype - striptease - tastelesness - television - trash - underground - vaudeville - video nasties - vulgar

2005, Jul 04; 15:52 ::: Sexploitation

Sexploitation is a name which describes media that is merely an excuse to purvey sex. Some consider it to be a genre, as it can be the general theme behind productions such as films or music videos. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexploitation [Jul 2005]

see also: low culture - sexploitation - exploitation - exploitation film - sex

2005, Jul 04; 15:21 ::: The final girl

Final Girl is a horror film conceit that specifically refers to the last person alive to confront the killer, ostensibly the one left to tell the story. The concept has been used in dozens of films, including Texas Chainsaw Massacre, Friday the 13th, Halloween, and A Nightmare on Elm Street.

The final girl is typically virginal and pure, avoiding the vices of the victims (pot smoking etc). She often has an androgynous name (e.g. Teddy, Billie, Georgie, Sydney) and usually has a shared history with the killer.

The phenomenon of the male audience having to identify with a young female character in an ostensibly male-oriented genre, usually associated with sadistic voyeurism, raises interesting questions about the nature of slasher films and their relationship with feminism.

The term was coined by Carol J. Clover in her book Men, Women and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Final_Girl [Jul 2005]

In literary terms, a conceit is a device used in order to make a story more accessible to the audience. A simple example of this is the film Speed. In Speed, Sandra Bullock's character is a workaholic that cannot slow her life down. She is also stuck on a bus that she can not slow down (or it will explode). Since the audience, obviously, has never been in such a bus, the film-goers cannot directly sympathize with the protagonist (Bullock's character). The conceit, however, enables the audience to do so because most people have had a job, friend, lover or hobby that he or she has become obsessive or otherwise spent too much time on. As the audience has struggled with a too-fast life, so can they sympathize with a character stuck on a too-fast bus. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conceit [Jul 2005]

see also: horror film - film - trope - paracinema - slasher film

2005, Jul 04; 15:12 ::: A History of Sex (Eline) (1996-1998) - Andres Serrano

A History of Sex (Eline) (1996-1998) - Andres Serrano

The social construction of sexual behavior - its taboos, regulation and social and political impact - has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_sex [Jul 2005]

see also: sex - history of sex - Andres Serrano

2005, Jul 04; 14:41 ::: Harmless presents: We Can Work It Out - Covers & Cookies of Lennon, McCartney & The Beatles (2005) - Various Artists

Harmless presents: We Can Work It Out - Covers & Cookies of Lennon, McCartney & The Beatles (2005) - Various Artists [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Track Listings
Disc: 1 1. Al Green - I Wanna Hold Your Hand 2. Deidre Wilson Tabac - Get Back 3. Harvey Averne - I Feel Fine 4. Marshall Williams - Norwegian Wood 5. Byron Lee - Live & Let Die 6. Ramsey Lewis - Back In The Ussr 7. Earth, Wind & Fire - Got To Get You Into My Life 8. Chocolate Snow - A Day In The Life 9. Jimmy James - Good Day Sunshine 10. Ike & Tina Turner - Come Together 11. The 5Th Dimension - Ticket To Ride 12. Stevie Wonder - We Can Work It Out 13. Sergio Mendes - Daytripper 14. Jose Feliciano - She's A Woman 15. The London Jazz Four - Things We Said Today 16. The 5 Starsteps - Dear Prudence

Disc: 2 1. 4 hero - Work It intro 2. Stevie Wonder - We Can Work It Out 3. Al Green - I Wanna Hold Your Hand 4. Deidre Wilson Tabac - Get Back 5. Harry Averne - I Feel Fine 6. Sergio Mendes - Daytripper 7. The London Jazz Four - Things We Said Today 8. Ike & Tina - Come Together 9. Byron lee - Live & Let Die 10. Marshall Williams - Norwegian Wood 11. Earth, Wind & Fire - Got To Get You Into My Life 12. The 5 Starsteps - Dear Prudence 13. Ramsey Lewis - Back In The Ussr 14. Chocolate Snow - A Day In The Life 15. 5th Dimension - Ticket To Ride 16. Jimmy James - Good Day Sunshine 17. Jose Feliciano - She's A Woman

Album Description
The Beatles and specifically the song writing megaliths of Lennon and McCartney produced some of the world's most memorable songs, so it was only a matter of time before their prodigious talent spread through to reggae, soul, funk and jazz to permeate musical worlds as yet un informed of the influence of the duo. From the London Jazz Four to Ike and Tina Turner who's covers have become classics in their own right, the power of a Beatles penned track has transpired musical pigeon holing and have remained formidable and awe inspiring soundtracks to many a dancefloor, soundsystem and jazz work out alike. 'We Can Work It Out' is the only Beatles covers album you'll need, compiled with dedication by true funk diggerz, this album is filled with music rather than fillers for music. Features a bonus Mix CD by 4-Hero. Harmless. 2005. --via Amazon.com

see also: soul - music - Beatles

2005, Jul 04; 14:41 ::: Harmless presents: I'm a Good Woman (1999 - ) - Various artists, series

Harmless presents: I'm a Good Woman (1999) - Various artists [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

1. Crumbs off the Table - Laura Lee 2. It's My Thing - Betty Moorer 3. Hang on in There - Stovall Sisters 4. But I Ain't No More [G.S.T.S.K.D.T.S.] - Vera Hamilton 5. Watchdog - Ann Winley 6. Anti Love Song - Betty Davis 7. You Gotta Push - Jodi Gayles 8. Who Is She (And What Is She to You) - Gladys Knight & the Pips 9. Give It up or Turn It Loose - Lyn Collins 10. Your Thing Ain't No Good Without My Thing - Marie Queenie Lyons 11. You're Gonna Miss Me - Ann Sexton 12. Give Me Your Love - Sisters Love 13. Make Me Believe in You - Patti Jo 14. I'm a Good Woman - Cold Blood

Harmless presents: I'm a Good Woman Vol.2 (2001) - Various Artists [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Track Listings
1. Seven Days - Apollas 2. A Change - Aretha Franklin 3. Fever - Marie ‘Queenie’ Lyons 4. Ego Tripping - Nikki Giovanni 5. I’ve Got What You Need - Mary Jane Hooper 6. Nasty Girl - Betty Davis 7. You Got To Be A Man - Helene Smith 8. Running Out - Mable John 9. I’m Gonna Tear Your Playhouse Down - Ann Peebles 10. You’ve Been Gone Too Long - Ann Sexton 11. Soul Girl - Jeanne And The Darlings 12. If You Don’t Give Me What I Want - Vicki Anderson 13. Daddy Don’t You Know About Sugar Bear - Marva Whitney 14. Carry On - Jean Knight 15. Going Down Slowly - The Pointer Sisters 16. Take Yo’ Praise - Camille Yarbrough

Harmless presents: I'm a Good Woman Vol.3 (2002) - Various Artists [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Track Listings
1. Two Heads Are Better Than One 2. Got Myself a Good Man - Gladys Knight & the Pips 3. I Can't Do My Thing - Barbara Acklin 4. I'm in a Lovin' Groove - Mary Jane Hooper 5. Some Love - Chaka Khan 6. It Can't Last Forever - Margie Alexander 7. Your Key Don't Fit It Anymore - Marie Queenie Lyons 8. Shoo-B-Doop and Cop Him - Betty Davis 9. Respect - Marva Whitney 10. How Long (Betcha' Got a Chick on the Side) - The Pointer Sisters 11. Mama's Got a Bag of Her Own - Anna King 12. Chain on My Thing 13. Don't Mess With My Man - Gloria Edwards 14. Hump - Patrice Rushen

see also: Harmless records - soul - music

2005, Jul 04; 13:22 ::: You're Gonna Miss Me (1999) - Ann Sexton

You're Gonna Miss Me (1999) - Ann Sexton [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

I don't know how well this compilation, but two tracks are worth the price of the CD: You're losing me and I'm his wife, you're just a friend . I listened to the former again on a rare groove mixtape I bought when visiting London in the 1980s

1. I Had a Fight With Love (And I Lost) 2. I'm His Wife, You're Just a Friend 3. You Got to Use What You Got 4. Colour My World Blue 5. I Want to Be Loved 6. You've Been Doing Me Wrong for So Long 7. Who's Gonna Love You? 8. You Can't Win 9. Love, Love, Love 10. You're Letting Me Down 11. You've Been Gone Too Long 12. Come Back Home 13. Keep on Holding On 14. Loving You, Loving Me 15. You're Gonna Miss Me 16. If I Work My Thing on You 17. You're Losing Me 18. Sugar Daddy 19. Be Serious 20. Have a Little Mercy

see also: soul - music

2005, Jul 04; 12:22 ::: Danceteria

Danceteria flyer, 1982
image sourced here.

see also: Danceteria - 1982 - club

2005, Jul 04; 12:22 ::: Literacy history

The history of literacy is several thousand years old, but before the industrial revolution finally made cheap paper and cheap books available to all classes in industrialized countries, in the mid-nineteenth century, literacy existed only in a tiny minority of the world's different societies. Until then, materials associated with literacy were so expensive that only wealthy people and institutions could afford them. As an example, in 1841 England 33% of men and 44% of women signed marriage certificates with their mark as they were unable to write. Only in 1870 was primary education made available for all in England. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literacy#Literacy_history [Jul 2005]

The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution#Effects [Jul 2005]

see also: literacy - paper - mass - newspaper - printing - pulp

2005, Jul 04; 11:27 ::: Punch magazine

Punch magazine cover, 1867

Punch, or The London Charivari was a British weekly magazine founded in July 17, 1841 by Henry Mayhew, Mark Lemon, and a wood engraver named Ebenezer Landells. At the time, there was a satirical humour magazine published in France under the title Le Charivari, and the creators felt that there could be a market for a similar magazine in Britain. Reflecting their satiric and humorous intent, they took for their name and masthead the anarchic glove puppet Mr. Punch, with the subtitle "The London Charivari" as a reference to the French magazine. Punch was responsible for the modern use of the word 'cartoon' to refer to a comic drawing. The illustrator Archibald Henning designed the cover of the magazine's first issues. It varied several times, Richard Doyle designed a decisive one in 1849. And, he was a regular contributor. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punch_magazine [Jul 2005]

see also: satire - 1800s - magazine

2005, Jul 04; 11:12 ::: Le Charivari (1832 - 1937)

Le Charivari was an illustrated newspaper published in Paris, France from 1832 to 1937.

To reduce their financial risk of censorship fines with the satirical anti-monarchist illustrated newspaper La Caricature, which had more pages and printed on more expensive paper, caricaturist Charles Philipon and Gabriel Aubert started Le Charivari which contained humorous, but not as political, content.

Le Charivari, the first publication to print lithographs, published caricatures, political cartoons and reviews. In 1835 the government banned political caricature, thus Le Charivari began publishing satires of everyday life.

The ownership of the paper changed often due to censorship, and related taxes and fines.

Contributing artists
Contributing with lithographs, woodcuts, and (after 1870) with zincographies (gillotage) were:

Text came from, among others,
  • L. Desnoyers
  • Cler
  • Jaime
  • Huart
  • Rochefort

Le Charivari published daily from 1832 to 1926, and then weekly until 1937. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Charivari [Jul 2005]

see also: satire - 1800s - censorship - caricature

2005, Jul 03; 23:12 ::: Unpublished (2004) - Gunter Blum

Unpublished (2004) - Klaus Honnef, Gunter Blum (Photographer) [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Book Description
Established critics place the photographic works of Günter Blum on the same level as contemporary works by Robert Mapplethorpe, Helmut Newton, or Lucien Clergue. Blum's exceptional artistic examination of the possibilities and ideas of the medium of black-and-white photography has made his work popular among collectors on the international art market and museum exhibitors. The female nude has always been Blum's main motif. Making a decisive use of composition, gestures, light, and intention, he pushes his work to the very borders of erotic provocation. Blum's artistic work and his creativity bear witness to an intensity and to a passion that are capable of arising anew with every single subject. --via Amazon.de

see also: erotic photography

2005, Jul 03; 09:51 ::: Pulps

It was around this time, the late 1890s, that pulp paper was introduced. This would soon become a great boon to the budding men's magazine industry and to the print-hungry public. Prior to pulp, all paper was made of rag - often literally recycled cotton clothing - whitened with clay. Paper such as this provides beautiful reproduction and is extremely durable; books printed on it can last hundreds of years. It is also comparatively expensive to produce and makes little sense for printing cheap, disposable magazines upon. Still, until 1890, this is what most magazines were printed on, while newspapers were on thin, so-called newsprint. Pulp paper came out of the new western timber industry. --http://www.taschen.com/pages/en/excerpts/sex/show/4/118.htm [Jul 2005]

see also: pulp - 1890s - men's magazines - Dian Hanson

2005, Jul 03; 09:51 ::: Onanism

Switzerland, 1760 - The Swiss physician, Simon-Auguste-Andre-David Tissot (1728-1787), published his influential treatise Onanism:   Or a Treatise Upon the Disorders produced by Masturbation:  Or, the Dangerous Effects of Secret and Excessive Venery  in 1760. He warned of the danger of sex, especially the dangers of sex undertaken for the purpose of pleasure rather than reproduction, as a cause of debility and even death. -- http://www.gayhistory.com/rev2/events/1760.htm [Jul 2005]

Medical attitudes towards masturbation
The first use of "onanism" to consistently and specifically refer to masturbation appears to be Onania, an anonymous pamphlet first distributed in London in 1716. In it was a bombastic but novel tirade, drawing on familiar themes of sin and vice, this time in particular against the "heinous sin" of "self-pollution". After dire warnings that those who so indulged would suffer impotence, gonorrhea, epilepsy and a wasting of the faculties (included were letters and testimonials supposedly from young men ill and dying from the effects of compulsive masturbation) the pamphlet then goes on to recommend as an effective remedy a "Strengthning Tincture" at 10 shillings a bottle and a "Prolific Powder" at 12 shillings a bag, available from a certain shop in London.

One of the many horrified by the descriptions of malady in Onania was the notable Swiss physician Samuel-August Tissot. In 1760, he published L'Onanisme, his own comprehensive medical treatise on the purported ill-effects of masturbation. Citing case studies of young male masturbators amongst his patients in Lausanne, Switzerland as basis for his reasoning, Tissot argued that semen was an "essential oil" and "stimulus" that, when lost from the body in great amounts, would cause "a perceptible reduction of strength, of memory and even of reason; blurred vision, all the nervous disorders, all types of gout and rheumatism, weakening of the organs of generation, blood in the urine, disturbance of the appetite, headaches and a great number of other disorders." --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masturbation#Medical_attitudes [Jul 2005]

see also: masturbation

2005, Jul 03; 00:35 ::: Spellbound, 1945

Salvador Dali, Backdrop for Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound, 1945.

Spellbound (1945), a movie directed by Alfred Hitchcock, tells the story of the new head of a mental asylum who turns out not to be what he claims to be. It stars Ingrid Bergman, Gregory Peck, Michael Chekhov and Leo G. Carroll.

Hitchcock also brought in artist Salvador Dalí to conceive certain scenes of mental delusion, which Selznick hated.

Although much of Dalí's work was used, one dream sequence depicting Bergman turning into a statue of the Greek goddess Diana was cut. There has been a lot of fan interest in restoring this material, but the footage apparently no longer exists (there are, however, some production stills of the sequence). --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spellbound_%281945_film%29 [Jul 2005]

2005, Jul 03; 00:23 ::: Candy

Candy (1968) - Christian Marquand [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Candy, based on the naughty, notorious erotic satire by Terry Southern, whose wicked pen contributed to Dr. Strangelove and Easy Rider (among other '60s classics), and adapted for the screen by the sly Buck Henry (The Graduate and Catch 22), is a bizarre second-hand reconfiguration of Candide for the permissive '60s. Swedish teen beauty queen Ewa Aulin is Candy, all breathy, wide-eyed innocence as a curvy blond kewpie doll--think Lolita, Barbarella, and Baby Spice all rolled into one--whose naiveté lands her in the sack with one dirty old man after another on a sexual odyssey. Guest cads include Ringo Starr as an embarrassingly unconvincing Mexican gardener; James Coburn preening as a surgeon who puts the "theater" into his operating theater; Walter Matthau as a snarling, insane general; and French crooner Charles Aznavour as a humpbacked spider man. Richard Burton stands out as a soused, sex-mad poet with an ever-present wind machine dramatically blowing his hair, and Marlon Brando's phony guru with a seductive line of mystic patter is downright hysterical.

Despite luscious cinematography by longtime Fellini collaborator Guiseppe Rotunno and gorgeous opening and closing sequences of space flight by Douglas Trumbull, this clumsy misfire has all the cutting satire of a Monkees episode and only half the style. Director Christian Marquand lets the film ramble interminably while his cast mercilessly mugs their way through ill-conceived roles (except Aulin, who remains a passive, almost alien presence in the center of the chaos). The result is a sloppy all-star sex farce with blunt, misdirected attempts at social topicality buried in teasing peekaboo pinup photography and sexual romps, pleasing enough eye candy but hardly the erotic, satirical, transgressive portrait the picture promises. --Sean Axmaker

Decca / 1969

Extrait de la BO du film plus ou moins sulfureux Candy (avec Marlon Brando) ce 45 tours déborde de guitares sales et de larsens incontrolés, repoussant avec folie les limites du psychédélisme 60's le plus barré. Sur le morceau de la face A, "Constant journey", la mélodie de l'orgue, incandescente, s'achève dans un chaos rythmique gavé de feed back et de roulement de caisse clair, dans le pure style garage/acid rock. Le morceau de la face B se la joue dans un registre plus pop avec ses choeurs naïfs et ses gimicks de guitare millésimés. Bon groove et déjante totale, bref, tout ce qu'on aime chez scopia. --http://perso.wanadoo.fr/scopia/45t1.html [Jul 2005]

2005, Jul 03; 00:15 ::: L'Ora del Cocktail

Cenacolo / 1978

Tout le monde a entendu siffler Alessandro Alessandroni. C'en est même devenu l'une des marques de fabrique des westerns spaghettis. Fidèle compagnon d'Ennio Morricone avec Bruno Nicolai et Bruno Battisti D'Amario, Alessandroni et ses talents de siffleur sont apparus dans de très nombreuses musiques de films ("Pour une poignée de $", "Le bon, la brute et le truand", etc.), fondant également pour la circonstance le "Cantori moderni di Alessandroni", sa chorale personnelle. L'italien est aussi reconnu pour avoir co-écrit la musique du cultissime "Escalation" (avec Morricone), ainsi que moult albums pour les maisons d'illustration musicale (italienne, française, allemande). "L'ora del cocktail", un vinyl italien de la fin des 70ies, s'adresse, comme son nom l'indique, aux amateurs de lounge music, et particulièrement à ceux qui apprécient l'introduction de synthétiseurs et de boîte à rythmes dans des thèmes romantiques, bossa, beat, light music. Les effets de synthé font parfois penser aux compositions électroniques de Piero Umiliani du début des 70ies (sans beaucoup d'inspiration cependant), et l'album dans son ensemble se rapproche des musiques légères compilées dans les florilèges Stroboscopica (vol. 1, 2, 3). A noter deux ou trois titres qui relèvent la sauce et notamment "Fuoristrada", un savant mélange de berimbau, piano électrique et orgue Farfisa (avec réverbe & rythme minimal). Tout bien pesé, ce disque peut séduire à la première écoute, mais n'a rien d'indispensable, surtout au prix que certains connaisseurs vous le vendront. --http://perso.wanadoo.fr/scopia/library2.html [Jul 2005]

2005, Jul 02; 23:02 ::: True crime

True crime is a genre of non-fiction detailing crimes.

Many such books or articles feature high-profile, sensationalistic crimes as serial killers, the O. J. Simpson case, and the Pamela Smart murder, while others are devoted to more obscure events. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/True_crime [jul 2005]

see also: non fiction - crime - reality - true - documentary

2005, Jul 02; 23:02 ::: Detective Magazines (2004) - Eric Godtland, Dian Hanson

Detective Magazines (2004) - Eric Godtland, Dian Hanson [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

In 1924 the "true crime" detective magazine genre was born, and it thrived and evolved in all its fishnet-stocking, smoking-gun glory until its demise in the mid-1990s. Cashing in on people's secret voyeuristic, morbid natures, magazines such as True Detective and American Detective profiled scandalous crimes and the villains - often sexy women in stiletto heels - who committed them. Over the years, the magazines became more and more focused on crime and sexuality, until they became smutty to the point of being too racy for the newsstands. Approximately 500 pages of covers, spreads, and text will explore this sensational magazine genre in vibrant detail. Among the texts included are a profile of the eccentric man who invented the genre in 1924, profiles of the cover artists, a decade-by-decade analysis of what sort of crimes were most popular with readers, profiles of the writers (many of whom went on to fame in crime fiction writing), a feminist scholar's analysis of the portrayal of women on the magazine covers, and a reprint from a 1986 forensic magazine damning the magazines as porno for sadists. A comprehensive listing of all known titles and their publishers completes this ex --via Amazon.de

see also: detective

2005, Jul 02; 23:02 ::: Crime films

Crime Films (2002) - Thomas Leitch [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

first sentence:
"The crime film is the most enduringly popular of all Hollywood genres, the only kind of film that has never once been out of fashion..." (more)

"Leitch makes his case, and provides a structure through which any crime film--and, really, any film with a criminal, victim, and avenger--can be studied. Such a structure is never more valuable than now." Erik Lundegaard, Film Quarterly "No film critic writes more clearly, in a style unencumbered by jargon. Even the photo captions are unusually perceptive and amusing. Highly recommended." Choice

Book Description
Focusing on ten films that span the range of the twentieth century, Thomas Leitch traces the transformation of three figures common to all crime films: the criminal, the victim and the avenger. He shows how the distinctions among them become blurred throughout the course of the century, reflecting and fostering a deep social ambivalence towards crime and criminals. The criminal, victim and avenger characters effectively map the shifting relations between subgenres (such as the erotic thriller and the police film) within the larger genre of crime film.

Film and literature: The case of crime fiction
Crime fiction and the motion picture industry have complemented each other well over the years. Both cater to the need of the average audience to escape into an idealist world, where the good reaps the rewards, and the bad incur their punishment. Adaptations of crime fiction into films have been hugely successful.

For a detailed explication of the history of the relationship between crime fiction and the film industry, see the main article crime film. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_fiction [Jul 2005]

The beginning of the 20th century saw the arrival of film as a new medium. By and large, what people wanted to watch on the screen did not differ from what they expected to see on the stage or read in short stories and novels: the good and the bad things in life (clearly separated from each other); virtue and vice; human prowess and human weakness; sin and redemption; and, probably more than anything else, poetic justice, or iustitia commutativa, as it is called according to Aristotle, with everyone getting what they deserve. In this respect, the cinema has always served as a means of escape from real life, though a temporary one. This escapist function of both literature and film did not change substantially in the course of the 20th century: One still feels uncomfortable if at the end of a film the "bad guy" gets away with all his evil doings, if order is not restored, if justice does not succeed in the end. Subconsciously, an average human feels that if the wicked character is not punished, the film comes too close to reality and makes the person remember, rather than forget his inadequate life. The crime film has thus been a popular genre in the 20th century. Crime films have been generally adapted from other forms of literature rather than written directly for the screen. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_film [Jul 2005]

see also: adaptation - thriller - crime fiction - violent films - film noir

2005, Jul 02; 21:53 ::: Ogle magazine

Ogle magazine cover (March 1956)

Das US-Magazin "Ogle" schmückte sich im März 1956 mit Jayne Mansfield. Die üppige Blondine aus Texas galt als "Marilyn für Arme". Obwohl sie auf den Covern von Männermagazinen aus aller Welt posierte, entblätterte sie sich nur ein einziges Mal vollständig - für den Playboy. --via Der Spiegel http://www.spiegel.de/fotostrecke/0,5538,4305,00.html [Jul 2005]

see also: men's magazine

2005, Jul 02; 18:42 ::: Criminalization

Criminalization or criminalisation is the process by which an act which was previously legal becomes a criminal offense by the passing of legislation or by increased enforcement of legislation when the act was previously condoned.

The term criminalization is often used specifically in the context where a specific act (e.g. use of particular substances) has previously been legal and where making this act illegal would increase illegal trafficking, smuggling, production or organised crime involvement.

It has been cited as a major reason against banning smoking. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criminalization [Jun 2005]

see also: banning - crime - law

2005, Jul 02; 18:11 ::: Mandingo (1957) - Kyle Onstott

Mandingo (1957) - Kyle Onstott [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

For over two decades, since his 1958 publication of Mandingo, author Kyle Onstott has churned out formulaic novels for an eager audience. -- Plantation Mistress (1984) - Catherine Clinton [Amazon.com]

see also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandingo

Mandingo (1975) - Richard Fleischer [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Mandingo is a 1975 film, based on the book Mandingo by Kyle Onstott, about a African slave in the 1840s United States who is trained as a prize fighter by his owner. The owner is just unaware that his daughter is having an affair with his best fighter.

The term has come to be used as a slang term for an interracial relationship.

The film was directed by Richard Fleischer, and featured James Mason, Susan George, Perry King, and boxer-turned-actor Ken Norton. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandingo_%28film%29 [Jun 2005]

see also: cross - slave - blaxploitation - 1957 - 1975

2005, Jul 02; 16:01 ::: Dian Hanson (1952? - )

[m]uch of what Dian Hanson writes is actually an earthy translation of her theories about sex -- theories that, as it happens, are rooted in academia. She has read every text about the libido that has come within her reach -- starting at the age of 14, when she found Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis in her local library. From there, she wended her way through Freud, Wilhelm Stekel, the sex-change expert John Money, and even the English satirist Geoff Nicholson, who is now Hanson's boyfriend. --http://newyorkmetro.com/nymetro/nightlife/sex/features/1862/ [Jun 2005]

see also Dian's regular column on taschen.com: http://www.taschen.com/pages/en/catalogue/books/sex/between/index/1.htm

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