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2006, Jan 31; 10:07 ::: Dime museum
Dime Museum, South State Street, Chicago.
Image sourced here.
Dime Museums were unique entertainment and moral education institutions that were briefly popular at the end of the 19th century in the United States. Designed as centers for entertainment and moral education for the working class (lowbrow), the museums were distinctly different from upper-middle class' cultural events (highbrow). In urban centers like New York City, where many immigrants settled, dime museums were popular and cheap entertainment. The social trend reached its peak during the Progressive era (1865-1920).
P.T. Barnum founded the first Dime Museum in 1841, called the "American Museum". P.T. Barnum and Charles Willson Peale introduced the so-called "Edutainement" which was a moralistic education realized through sensational freakshows, theater and circus perfomances and many other means of entertainment. The "American Museum" burned down in 1865. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dime museum [Jan 2006]
See also: sensationalism - dime - museum - cheap - 1840s
2006, Jan 31; 10:07 ::: Parthenon (1872)
1872 photograph of the western face
Image sourced here.
The Parthenon is the best-known surviving building of Ancient Greece and is regarded as one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon [Jan 2006]
See also: archeology - ruin - greatness - 1872 - Greece - ancient - building
2006, Jan 30; 23:07 ::: Futurist Pavilion (1928)
Futurist Pavilion at the exhibition held in the Parco Valentino, Turin (1928)
Image sourced here.
--http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enrico Prampolini [Jan 2006]
Built by the Turinese Futurist architects following Prampolini's drawings, the pavilion presents us with an original and concretely Futurist type of architecture, characterised by a brilliant polychromatism, by volumetric contrasts, by striking supergraphics. --http://www.rebel.net/~futurist/prampoli.htm [Jan 2006]
See also: 1928 - Futurism - modern architecture - modern music
2006, Jan 30; 23:07 ::: Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun (1894) - Claude Debussy
1920 set decoration for "L'après midi d'un faune" by Mallarmé (E. Prampolini).
Image sourced here.
Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun) (1894) - Claude Debussy [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
The Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (or Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun) is a musical composition for orchestra by Claude Debussy that was first performed in 1894. It was inspired by the poem L'après-midi d'un faune by Stéphane Mallarmé and later formed the basis for the ballet of the same name by Vaslav Nijinsky. The composition is one of Debussy's most famous works and is considered a turning point in the history of music; Pierre Boulez remarked that "one can justifiably claim that modern music began with L'après-midi d'un faune."
About his composition Debussy wrote:The music of this prelude is a very free illustration of Mallarmé's beautiful poem. By no means does it claim to be a synthesis of it. Rather there is a succession of scenes through which pass the desires and dreams of the faun in the heat of the afternoon. Then, tired of pursuing the timorous flight of nymphs and naiads, he succumbs to intoxicating sleep, in which he can finally realize his dreams of possession in universal Nature.
It contains one of the most famous passages in musical modernism, the half step descent to the tritone and ascent of the flute.
The work is called a prelude because Debussy intended to write a suite of three pieces - Prelude, Interlude, and Final Paraphrase - but the last two pieces were never written. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prelude_to_the_Afternoon_of_a_Faun [Jan 2006]
See also: 1894 - 1920 - Claude Debussy - classical music - modernist music - modern music
2006, Jan 30; 22:07 ::: Abstract Film and Beyond (1982) - Malcolm LeGrice
Abstract Film and Beyond (1982) - Malcolm LeGrice [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
"Malcolm Le Grice, an important experimental filmmaker from England, film journalist for Studio International, and teacher ... gives us a lucid account, both historical and theoretical, of the main preoccupations of abstract filmmakers....
"Le Grice begins with a painter, Cezanne, to show how his preoccupation with pictorial space is a key to any understanding of the notion of abstraction. He goes on to discuss the Futurists' cinema, the early abstract film experiments by Eggeling, Duchamp and others in Germany and France of the '20s, the West Coast filmmakers of the '40s, and a stimulating view of the experimental film movement after WW II, including the works of Brakhage, Snow, Gidal and Sharits." - Art Direction
"Whether or not one agrees with Le Grice's valuation of an alternate cinema, Abstract Film and Beyond clearly demonstrates that the cinema, that great twentieth-century art, is no mere entertainment, but an event of tremendous importance and implication." - The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism
See also: abstract film - film - experimental film
2006, Jan 30; 22:07 ::: Berlin, Symphony of a City (1927) - Walter Ruttmann
Berlin, Symphony of a City (1927) - Walter Ruttmann
Image sourced here.
See also: Berlin - Walter Ruttmann - film - experimental film - 1927
2006, Jan 30; 21:07 ::: Rue de la Colonie (1900) - Eugène Atget
Rue de la Colonie (1900) - Eugène Atget
Image sourced here.
Eugène Atget (1857?1927) was a French photographer noted for his naturalistic photographs of and in the city of Paris. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eug%C3%A8ne_Atget [Jan 2006]
See also: photography - France - naturalism - 1900
2006, Jan 30; 20:07 ::: Chelsea Hotel
The Chelsea Hotel (1936) - Berenice Abbott
Image sourced here.
The Chelsea Hotel (2000) - MrJumbo
a 2000 mimic of a Berenice Abbott photograph by MrJumbo
Image sourced here.
Berenice Abbott (July 17, 1898 – December 9, 1991) was an American photographer best known for her black-and-white photography of the streetlife and architecture of New York City during the 1930s.
She was born in Springfield, Ohio and was raised in part by Hippolyte Havel, beginning in 1910. Abbott began taking photographs in 1923. From 1923 to 1925, she was an assistant of Man Ray in Paris, where she made an series of portraits of well-known artistic and literary figures of the 1920s. In 1925, she discovered the photography of Eugène Atget and helped him gain international recognition for his work. Abbott's photography became acknowledged much later in her career due her role in promoting Atget's work, which obscured the significance of her own.
She began documenting New York City in 1929 and published some of her work made in 1939 in her book entitled Changing New York, which was supported by the Federal Arts Program. Her work has provided a historical chronicle of many now-destroyed buildings and neighborhoods of Manhattan. Using a large format camera, Abbott photographed New York City with the same attention to detail and diligence as she learned from the career of Eugène Atget.
Abbott was part of the straight photography movement, which stressed the importance of photographs being unmanipulated in both subject matter and developing processes. She was also against pictorialists such as Alfred Stieglitz, who had gained much popularity during a substantial span of her own career and therefore, left her work without support from this particular sect of photographers. Nonetheless, her style of straight photography aided her making important contributions to scientific photography. In 1958, she produced a series of photographs for a high-school physics text-book.
Not only was Abbott a photographer, but she also started the House of Photography in 1947 to promote and sell some of her inventions. These inventions included a distortion easle, which created unusual effects on images developed in a darkroom, and the telescopic lighting pole, known today as by many studio photographers as an "autopole," in which lights can be attached at any level. Due to poor marketing, the House of Photography quickly lost money and with the deaths of two designers, the company went under.
After an extensive trip documenting the scenes of Route 1 from Maine to Florida and back resulting in over 2,500 negatives, Abbott underwent a lung operation. She was told that due to the city pollution, it would be in her best interest to move away from New York City. She bought a rundown home in Maine for only $1,000 where she remained until her death in 1991. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berenice_Abbott [Jan 2006]
See also: photography - New York - city - building
2006, Jan 30; 20:07 ::: Functional architecture has proved to be a wrong road
"Functional architecture has proved to be a wrong road, just like painting with a ruler. With giant strides we are approaching impractical, unusable, and finally uninhabitable architecture And only after things have been creatively covered with mould, from which we have much to learn, will a new and wonderful architecture come into being". -- Friedrich Hundertwasser
See also: architecture - postmodern architecture - abstract art
2006, Jan 30; 17:07 ::: The Dismemberment of Orpheus: Toward a Postmodern Literature (1971) - Ihab Habib Hassan
The following table is taken from a part of The Dismemberment of Orpheus that was reprinted in Postmodern American Fiction: A Norton Anthology (1998). It has helped many students understand the differences, both concrete and abstract, between modernism and postmodernism. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ihab_Hassan [Jan 2006]
Modernism Postmodernism Romanticism/Symbolism 'Pataphysics/Dadaism Form (conjunctive, closed) Antiform (disjunctive, open) Purpose Play Design Chance Hierarchy Anarchy Mastery/Logos Exhaustion/Silence Art Object / Finished Work Process/Performance/Happening Distance Participation Creation/Totalization Decreation/Deconstruction Sythesis Antithesis Presence Absence Centering Dispersal Genre/Boundary Text/Intertext Semantics Rhetoric Paradigm Syntagm Hypotaxis Parataxis Metaphor Metonymy Selection Combination Root/Depth Rhizome/Surface Interpretation/Reading Against Interpretation / Misreading Signified Signifier Lisible (Readerly) Scriptable (Writerly) Narrative / Grande Histoire Anti-narrative / Petit Histoire Master Code Idiolect Syptom Desire Type Mutant Genital/Phallic Polymorphous/Androgynous Paranoia Schizophrenia Origin / Cause Difference-Differance / Trace God the Father The Holy Ghost Metaphysics Irony Determinacy Indeterminacy Transcendence Immanence
The Dismemberment of Orpheus: Toward a Postmodern Literature (1971) - Ihab Habib Hassan [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
Please note the use of the term toward which is typical of postmodern critical writing.
See also: Ihab Hassan - postmodernism - postmodern literature - modernism
2006, Jan 30; 17:07 ::: Field (1991) - Antony Gormley
Field (1991) - Antony Gormley
Image sourced here. [Jan 2006]
Field (1991) is a sculpture by British artist Anthony Gormley. It consists of 35,000 individual terracotta figures, each about 25cm high, installed on the floor of a room facing the viewer. The figures were sculpted in Cholula Mexico by the 60 strong Texca family of brickmakers, under the supervision of the artist. The sculpture received a lot of media attention upon its first display, and many affectionate parodies. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_%28sculpture%29 [Jan 2006]
Antony Gormley (born 1950) is an English sculptor. He is best known among the general public as the creator of Angel of the North, a controversial piece of public sculpture in Gateshead. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antony Gormley [Jan 2006]
See also: 1990s - sculpture - visual arts - contemporary art
2006, Jan 30; 17:07 ::: Tilted Arc (1981 - 1989)
Richard Serra (born 2 November 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal.
Richard Serra was one of the first artists to have a public work of art physically rejected by the public. In 1981, Serra installed Tilted Arc, a gently curved, 3.5 metre high arc of rusting mild steel in the Federal Plaza in New York City. There was controversy over the installation from day one, largely from workers in the buildings surrounding the plaza who complained that the steel wall obstructed passage through the plaza. A public hearing in 1985 voted that the work should be moved, but Serra argued the sculpture was site specific and could not be placed anywhere else. Eventually on 15 March 1989, the sculpture was dismantled by federal workers and taken for scrap. William Gaddis satirized these events in his biting 1994 novel A Frolic of His Own. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Serra [Jan 2006]
Tilted Arc (1981) - Richard Serra
Image sourced here. [Jan 2006]
Tilted Arc was a sculpture commissioned by the U.S. General Service Administration's Arts-in-Architecture program for the Federal Plaza in New York, NY. It was designed by Richard Serra and constructed in 1981, and dismantled, after much debate, in 1989.
The sculpture was a solid, black-painted plane of steel, 120 feet long (36.6 meters), 12 feet high (3.66 meters), and 2.5 inches thick. As its name suggests, it was slightly tilted. Serra said of the design, "The viewer becomes aware of himself and of his movement through the plaza. As he moves, the sculpture changes. Contraction and expansion of the sculpture result from the viewer's movement. Step by step the perception not only of the sculpture but of the entire environment changes."
For several reasons, the sculpture was strongly opposed by many, led by Judge Edward Re. First, there was outrage at the cost: $175,000 for a solid, black block of steel. Second, it was regarded as an eyesore by many, and was a genuine inconvenience to some, who in the course of walking through the plaza had to go out of their way to go around the massive sculpture. It also attracted graffiti and, according to some, rats.
A public hearing was held on the subject of the sculpture in March of 1985, with 122 people testifying in favor of keeping the stature, and 58 in favor of removing it. A jury of five voted 4-1 to remove the sculpture. The decision was appealed by Serra, but the sculpture was eventually dismantled by federal workers on March 15, 1989. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilted_Arc [Jan 2006]
See also: 1980s - sculpture - visual arts - contemporary art - minimalism - USA
2006, Jan 30; 17:07 ::: Process art
U.S. and Europe, mid-1960s
Process art emphasizes the “process” of making art (rather than any predetermined composition or plan) and the concepts of change and transience, as elaborated in the work of such artists as Lynda Benglis, Eva Hesse, Robert Morris, Bruce Nauman, Alan Saret, Richard Serra, Robert Smithson, and Keith Sonnier. Their interest in process and the properties of materials as determining factors has precedents in the Abstract Expressionists’ use of unconventional methods such as dripping and staining. In a ground-breaking essay and exhibition in 1968, Morris posited the notion of “anti-form” as a basis for making art works in terms of process and time rather than as static and enduring icons, which he associated with “object-type” art. Morris stressed this new art’s de-emphasis of order through nonrigid materials, pioneered by Claes Oldenburg, and the manipulation of those materials through the processes of gravity, stacking, piling, and hanging.
Process artists were involved in issues attendant to the body, random occurrences, improvisation, and the liberating qualities of nontraditional materials such as wax, felt, and latex. Using these, they created eccentric forms in erratic or irregular arrangements produced by actions such as cutting, hanging, and dropping, or organic processes such as growth, condensation, freezing, or decomposition. --http://www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/glossary_Process_art.html [Jan 2006]
See also: visual arts - modern art - contemporary art - Henri Bergson - Robert Smithson
2006, Jan 30; 13:07 ::: Bartleby the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street (1853) - Herman Melville"In this very attitude did I sit when I called to him, rapidly stating what it was I wanted him to do—namely, to examine a small paper with me. Imagine my surprise, nay, my consternation, when without moving from his privacy, Bartleby in a singularly mild, firm voice, replied, “I would prefer not to.”" --Bartleby the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street (1853)
Bartleby the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street (1853) - Herman Melville [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
"Bartleby the Scrivener" is a short story by Herman Melville. The story first appeared, anonymously, in Putnam's Magazine in two parts. The first part appeared in November 1853, with the conclusion published in December 1853. It was reprinted in Melville's The Piazza Tales in 1856 with minor textual alterations. The work is said to have been inspired, in part, by Melville's reading of Emerson, and some have pointed to specific parallels to Emerson's essay, "The Transcendentalist." The story was adapted into a movie starring Crispin Glover in 2001.
The narrator of the story is an unnamed lawyer with offices on Wall Street in New York City. He describes himself as doing "a snug business among rich men's bonds and mortgages and title-deeds." He has three employees: "First, Turkey; second, Nippers; third, Ginger Nut," each of whom is described. The first two are copyists or scriveners, and the lawyer decides his business needs a third. Bartleby responds to his advertisement and arrives at the office, "pallidly neat, pitiably respectable, incurably forlorn!"
At first Bartleby appears to be a competent worker, but later he refuses to work when requested, repeatedly uttering the phrase "I would prefer not to." He is also found to be living in the lawyer's office. Bartleby refuses to explain his behavior, and also refuses to leave when dismissed. The lawyer moves offices to avoid any further confrontation, and Bartleby is taken away to The Tombs. At the end of the story, Bartleby slowly starves in prison, finally expiring during a visit by the lawyer. The lawyer suspects Bartleby's conjectured previous career in the Dead Letter Office in Washington, DC drove him to his bizarre behavior.
"Bartleby the Scrivener" is among the most famous of American short stories. It has been considered a precursor to Existentialist and Absurdist literature even though at the time that this story was published it was not very popular. "Bartleby" touches on many of the themes extant in the work of Franz Kafka, particularly in The Trial and A Hunger Artist. However, there exists nothing to indicate that the Czech writer was at all familiar with Melville, who was largely forgotten until after Kafka's death.
Albert Camus cites Melville (explicitly over Kafka) as one of his key influences in a personal letter to Liselotte Dieckmann printed in the French Review in 1998. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartleby_the_Scrivener [Jan 2006]
Inspired by Gilles Deleuze
See also: Franz Kafka - Albert Camus - 1853 - 1850s - American literature - absurdism - existentialism
2006, Jan 30; 13:07 ::: De Witte Raaf on Gilles Deleuze
For those of you living in Flanders or the Netherlands, art magazine De Witte Raaf dedicates an almost entire issue to Gilles Deleuze.Rizomen. Verlangensmachines. Deterritorialisering. Multiple subjectivities. In de kunstwereld hebben deze fetisjbegrippen al een stevige carriére achter de rug. Midden jaren 90, toen de 'procesmatige kunst' in zwang raakte, introduceerden (ster)curatoren hun favoriete 'artistieke praktijken' met standaardfrasen als it's a work of the devenir. Maar Deleuze paste niet alleen in de hausse van procesmatige kunst. Zijn denken werd en wordt ook ingeschakeld als een vitalistisch wapen tegen kritiek. De vrolijke affirmatie van het leven slaat in dat geval om in een agressieve positiviteit. Weg met al dat kritische, negatieve gedoe. Tegen tegen, om het met de titel van een recent symposium (januari 2004) in het MuHKA te zeggen.
Het idee voor dit nummer is gegroeid uit een hartsgrondige irritatie over het gebruik en misbruik van Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995) in de kunstwereld. Het werd stilaan tijd om Deleuze tegen zijn liefhebbers te verdedigen. Maar we mogen ons niet tot een apologie beperken. We moeten ook analyseren op welke manier het denken van Deleuze zijn gebruik/misbruik uitlokt. Aaron Schuster, die specifiek ingaat op het gebruik van Deleuze in de kunstwereld, relativeert het nut van zijn denken voor de kunst. Hij geeft aan hoe de hedendaagse kunst, onder verwijzing naar Deleuze, vooral zichzelf niet wil zijn, maar wil opgaan in wat ze niet is, het échte leven. Dit verlangen functioneert als een scherm dat bestaande problemen in de kunst en het leven aan het zicht onttrekt. De tekst van Marc De Kesel insisteert op een ongezellig aspect van Deleuzes denken dat door vrolijk-nomadische deleuzianen onder de reismat is geveegd: de agressieve en ondraaglijke component in zijn vitalistische 'zijnsleer'. De Kesel vertrekt van het thans populaire 'nomadische subject' van Deleuze. Dat subject blijkt echter niet de vlottende identiteit van een reiziger of migrant te zijn. Het is een gewelddadig on-subject, een pure machtswil die, drijvend op het vitale geweld van het zijn zelf, in de 'zijnsvergeten' orde van ons dagelijks leven binnenbreekt. De nomade is het leven/het zijn dat vernietigend in ons woekert.
Dominiek Hoens volgt Deleuze in diens lectuur van Bartleby, de figuur uit de novelle van Melville. Hij stelt scherp op de ongewone kant van Deleuzes Bartleby-lectuur, om via twee motieven uit Melvilles verhaal - het scherm en de muur - op de blinde vlek van Deleuze te stoten. Dirk Lauwaert gaat in op de late 'diptiek' die Deleuze aan film wijdde: de boeken L'Image-mouvement en L'Image-temps. Daarmee komt een belangrijk deleuziaans thema in het vizier - de tijd - alsook een belangrijke referentiefiguur: Henri Bergson.
De essays over Deleuze worden doorkruist met essays van Deleuze zelf. L'Immanence: une vie... is de laatste tekst die Deleuze bij leven publiceerde. Verder is er een gesprek tussen Toni Negri en Gilles Deleuze, gevolgd door een bij uitstek politieke tekst: Deleuzes naschrift over de controlemaatschappijen.
Dit nummer werd gemaakt in samenwerking met Marc De Kesel en Dominiek Hoens.
See also: De Witte Raaf - Marc De Kesel - Gilles Deleuze - Henri Bergson
2006, Jan 30; 11:07 ::: X - The Man with the X-Ray Eyes (1963) - Roger Corman
X - The Man with the X-Ray Eyes (1963) - Roger Corman [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
See also: mad scientist trope - Roger Corman - 1963 - voyeurism - American cinema
2006, Jan 30; 10:07 ::: Girl raising her skirt (1742) - François Boucher
Girl raising her skirt (1742) - François Boucher
Any erotic representation implies the presence of an onlooker. In the sense that the spectator is the onlooker - the conjunction of the erotic image and the person looking at it already amounts to an act of voyeurism. --Edward Lucie-Smith, 1997
In this particular painting by François Boucher, we feel as we are looking through a keyhole, giving us even more the impression that we are voyeurs. [Jan 2006]
See also: 1740s - buttocks - voyeurism - François Boucher - erotic art
2006, Jan 30; 09:07 ::: The Judgment of Paris (c.1510) - Raphael
The Judgment of Paris (c.1510) - Raphael
Marcantonio Raimondi engraving after Raphael
The composition of The Judgment of Paris, a scene with river gods in an engraving (c. 1510) by Marcantonio Raimondi (after a drawing by Raphael), inspired Manet's Déjeuner sur l'herbe (1863).
See also: Raphael - mythology - Déjeuner sur l'herbe (1863) - 1500s
2006, Jan 29; 23:07 ::: Anatomical drawing (c.1751)
Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie (1751).
See also: drawing - anatomy - 1750s
2006, Jan 29; 09:07 ::: Buffalo Gals (c. 1840)
Buffalo Gals (c. 1840)
The tune is widespread in American tradition, though as Samuel Bayard (1944) points out, the song is widely disseminated and is now an 'international melody'. Curiously, he thinks the air itself probably originated in Germany, but came to America and was assimilated in 'British style'.
Image sourced here. [Jan 2006]
Buffalo Gals (1982)
Malcolm McLaren appropriates the title of this 1840s tune and has Trevor Horn produce a 1982 hip hop and scratch version of the famous lyrics. In the U.K. released by Charisma and in the US by Island Records.
See also: minstrel shows - black music - Island records - Malcolm McLaren - 1840s
2006, Jan 29; 09:07 ::: Site search change
I changed site search from Google to MSN, due to relevancy of results. Please judge for yourself.
See also: search
2006, Jan 28; 21:07 ::: The Golden Legend (c.1260) - Jacobus de Voragine
The Golden Legend (c.1260) - Jacobus de Voragine[Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
The Golden Legend (Latin: Legenda Aurea) by Jacobus de Voragine (Jacopo da Varagine) is a collection of fanciful hagiographies, lives of the saints, that became a late mediaeval bestseller. It was probably compiled around 1260.
A medieval best seller
Initially titled simply Legenda Sanctorum, Latin for "Readings on the Saints", its popularity gained it the title by which it is best known. More than a thousand manuscript copies of the work survive, and when printing was invented in the 1450s, editions appeared quickly, not only in Latin, but also in every major European language. It is said that no book other than the Bible was so widely read during the late Middle Ages. It was one of the first books William Caxton printed in the English language; Caxton's version appeared in 1483. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Golden Legend [Jan 2006]
See also: translation - 1200s - Middle Ages - literature - bestseller - saints - legend - golden
2006, Jan 28; 13:07 ::: A Thousand Plateaus : Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1980) - Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari
A Thousand Plateaus : Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1980, 1987 (trans)) - Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
A Thousand Plateaus is a book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Félix Guattari. It forms the second part of their Capitalism and Schizophrenia duo (the first part being The Anti-Oedipus).
The concept of "becoming-minor" appears in one of the "Plateaus", as a phase of deterritorialization. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Thousand_Plateaus [Jan 2006]
See also: capitalism - Gilles Deleuze - Félix Guattari - French philosophy - 1980
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