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2006, Mar 11; 23:05 ::: Lake Thun (1905) - Ferdinand Hodler

In search of modernism

Lake Thun (1905) - Ferdinand Hodler
Image sourced here.

Ferdinand Hodler (March 14, 1853 in Berne – May 19, 1918 in Geneva) was one of the best-known Swiss painters of the 19th century. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand Hodler [Mar 2006]

See also: 1905 - modern art - Switzerland

2006, Mar 11; 23:05 ::: Chair 3107 (1956) - Arne Jacobsen

In search of modernism

Lewis Morley's Christine Keeler photoshoot was one of the most iconic of the 1960s, she was seated on a 3107
Image sourced here.

The world famous stacking chair 3107 by Arne Jacobsen is today with its unique timeless design just as topical as when it was introduced in 1956 for the first time.

Christine Keeler
Christine Keeler (born February 22, 1942) was a British model and showgirl. Her involvement with a British government minister discredited the Conservative administration of Harold Macmillan in 1963 in what is known as the Profumo Affair. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christine_Keeler [Mar 2006]

See also: 1956 - Scandinavian design - Arne Jacobsen - 1960s

2006, Mar 11; 23:05 ::: Wiener-Werkstaette-Stil

In search of modernism

Untitled Cubist work (1902) - Josef Hoffmann

Wiener Werkstaette Style
With the foundation of the Wiener Werkstaette in 1903, a new artistic style was born that came to be known as the Wiener-Werkstaette-Stil (literally, the Vienna Workshops Style). Beginning with the 14th Exhibition of the Vienna Sezession in 1902, the radical distinctiveness of certain Viennese artists began to emerge, setting a foundation for the widespread Modernist movement. Among the innovators was the Viennese architect Josef Hoffmann. His cubist sculpture created in 1902 marked a break into independence for many Viennese artists. His works from this period are especially remarkable when one considers that the term "cubism" only found its way into the art lexicon around 1907 to describe the work of Pablo Picasso.

With its avant-garde, artistic, yet timeless designs, the Wiener-Werkstaette-Stil influenced generations of architects and designers in the 20th century. Bauhaus in Germany, Art Deco in America from 1920 to 1940, Scandinavian design from 1940-1960 (see for example Arne Jacobsen), as well as Italian design (see Mario Bellini) between 1960 and 1980, are all strongly influenced by the Wiener Werkstaette. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiener_Werkstaette_Style [Mar 2006]

See also: avant-garde - Vienna - design - Cubism - 1902

2006, Mar 11; 22:05 ::: The straight line versus the sinuous curve

In search of modernism

Palais Stoclet interior (ca. 1911) - Josef Hoffmann, Brussels, Belgium
Image sourced here.
Please note the contrast of the overall straight architectural lines with the sinuous curves of the Klimt decorations on the wall.

See also: Palais Stoclet - 1911 - Art Nouveau - modernism - straight - sinuous - aesthetics - design - fashion - style

2006, Mar 11; 13:05 ::: Gesamtkunstwerk

In search of total design

Palais Stoclet (1905 to 1911) - Josef Hoffmann, Brussels, Belgium

The integration of architects, artists, and artisans makes the Palais Stoclet an example of Gesamtkunstwerk, one of the defining characteristics of Art Nouveau. [Mar 2006]

Gesamtkunstwerk is a German term attributed to the German opera composer Richard Wagner which refers to an operatic performance which encompasses music, theater, and the visual arts. He felt that in ancient Greek tragedy, these had been fused, but at some point they drifted apart -- he was critical of current opera which he felt emphasized the music too heavily and did not contain quality drama.

Literally meaning "synthesis of the arts," the term is also commonly used (especially by Germans) to describe any integration of multiple art forms.

Wagner placed great importance on "mood setting" elements, such as a darkened theater, sound effects, and seating arrangements which focused the attention of audience on the stage, completely immersing them in the imaginary world of the opera. These concepts were revolutionary at the time, but they have since come to be taken for granted in the modern operatic environment. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gesamtkunstwerk [Mar 2006]

Joseph Beuys
In his life work Joseph Beuys tried to overcome (western) materialism by combining it with (eastern) spirituality. In his synthesis of the arts (Gesamtkunstwerk) he even used the Berlin wall as a piece of art. By throwing a Blood sausage over the concrete wall (from West to East Germany), he tried to unify the nation symbolically. [Mar 2006]

Hans Makart
Hans Makart was deeply interested in the interaction of all the visual arts and thus in the implementation of the idea of the "total work of art" which dominated discussions on the arts in the 19th century. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Makart [Mar 2006]

The conscious act of artistically addressing all the senses with regard to the viewer’s experience in totality made a resounding debut in 1849 when Richard Wagner conceived of a Gesamtkunstwerk, or an operatic work for the stage that drew inspiration from ancient Greek theater in its inclusion of all the major art forms: painting, writing, music, etc. (Britannica) In devising operatic works to commandeer the audience’s senses, Wagner left nothing unobserved: architecture, ambiance, and even the audience itself were considered and manipulated in order to achieve a state of total artistic immersion. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Installation_art [Mar 2006]

The Art-Work of the Future
AS Man stands to Nature, so stands Art to Man. When Nature had developed in herself those attributes which included the conditions for the existence of Man, then Man spontaneously evolved. In like manner, as soon as human life had engendered from itself the conditions for the manifestment of Art-work, this too stepped self-begotten into life.

Nature engenders her myriad forms without caprice or arbitrary aim ("absichtlos und unwillkürlich"), according to her need ("Bedürfniss"), and therefore of Necessity ("Nothwendigkeit"). This same Necessity is the generative and formative force of human life. Only that which is un-capricious and un-arbitrary can spring from a real need; but on Need alone is based the very principle of Life. --The Art-Work of the Future, Richard Wagner, translated by William Ashton Ellis, original title, Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft http://users.belgacom.net/wagnerlibrary/prose/wagartfut.htm [Mar 2006]

See also: 1849 - work - art - Richard Wagner - design - opera

2006, Mar 11; 13:05 ::: Blood Sweat And Tears: Or How I Stopped Worrying And Learned to Love Fashion (2005) - Bruce Weber

Blood Sweat And Tears: Or How I Stopped Worrying And Learned to Love Fashion (2005) - Bruce Weber [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Bruce Weber, born March 29, 1946 is a well-known gay photographer and occasional filmmaker. He first came to the attention of the general public by shooting late 1980s and early 1990s iconographic ad images for omnisexual fashion company Calvin Klein. His straightforward black and white shots, featuring an unclothed heterosexual couple on a swing - facing each other, two clothed guys in bed, and model Marcus Schenkenberg barely holding jeans in front of himself in a shower while an accompanying unrelated shot of concert fans presented a lurid dichotomy, catapulted him into the national spotlight. His photo for Calvin Klein of an Olympic athlete in white briefs is a famous iconic image. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruce_Weber [Mar 2006]

See also: blood - sweat - tears - fashion photography

2006, Mar 11; 09:05 ::: Wild at Heart (1990) - David Lynch

In search of wild

Isabella Rossellini in Wild at Heart (1990) - David Lynch [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Wild at Heart is a 1990 film directed by David Lynch. The film is based on the novel by Barry Gifford.

Starring Nicolas Cage, Laura Dern, Diane Ladd, and Willem Dafoe, the film mixes bizarre almost supernatural events and off-kilter violence making it an atypical road movie which stands all the usual clichés of the genre on their head. It is an unusual homage to The Wizard of Oz.

The film won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild at Heart [Mar 2006]

Isabella Rossellini
Isabella Fiorella Elettra Giovanna Rossellini, born June 18, 1952 in Rome, is a model and an actress, daughter of Ingrid Bergman and Roberto Rossellini. She has a sister, who is also an actress, Isotta Rossellini, and a brother, Roberto Ingmar Rossellini.

Her modeling career began when she was photographed by Bruce Weber for British Vogue and by Bill King for American Vogue. She has worked with many renowned photographers, including Richard Avedon, Francesco Scavullo, Annie Leibovitz, and Robert Mapplethorpe. Her image has appeared on such magazines as Marie Claire, Harper's Bazaar, and Vanity Fair. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_Rossellini [Mar 2006]

See also: 1990 - wild - David Lynch - road movie - American cinema

2006, Mar 11; 09:05 ::: The Wild Angels (1966) - Roger Corman

In search of wild

The Wild Angels (1966) - Roger Corman [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

The Wild Angels (1966) is a Roger Corman film, made on location in Southern California. The Wild Angels was made two years before Easy Rider and was the first film to associate actor Peter Fonda with Harley-Davidson motorcycles and 1960’s counterculture.

The Wild Angels, released by American International Pictures, stars Fonda as Hells Angels San Pedro, California chapter president "Heavenly Blues," Nancy Sinatra as his girlfriend "Mike," Bruce Dern as doomed fellow outlaw "the Loser," and Dern's real-life wife Diane Ladd as the Loser's screen wife, "Gaysh."

Small supporting roles are played by Michael J. Pollard and Gayle Hunnicutt, and by members of the Hells Angels from Venice, California. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wild_Angels [Mar 2006]

See also: wild - 1966 - AIP - biker - American cinema - Roger Corman - counterculture

2006, Mar 10; 22:05 ::: Fauvism

In search of color

Charing Cross Bridge in London (1906) - André Derain

Les Fauves (French for wild beasts), a short-lived and loose grouping of early Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities, and the use of deep color over the representational values retained by Impressionism. Fauvists simplified lines, made the subject of the painting easy to read, exaggerated perspectives and used brilliant but arbitrary colors. They also emphasised freshness and spontaneity over finish.

One of the fundamentals of the Fauves was expressed in 1888 by Paul Gauguin to Paul Sérusier,

"How do you see these trees? They are yellow. So, put in yellow; this shadow, rather blue, paint it with pure ultramarine; these red leaves? Put in vermilion."

The name was given (humourously) to the group by art critict Louis Vauxcelles. In French, "Fauves" means "wild beasts". The painter Gustave Moreau was the movement's inspirational teacher, and a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris who pushed his students to think outside of the lines of formality and to follow their visions.

The leaders of the movement, Moreau's top students, were Henri Matisse and André Derain — friendly rivals of a sort, each with his own followers. The paintings, for example Matisse's 1908 The Dessert or Derain's The Two Barges, use powerful reds or other forceful colors to draw the eye. Matisse became the yang to Picasso's yin in the 20th century while time has trapped Derain at the century's beginning, a "wild beast" forever. Their disciples included Albert Marquet, Henri Manguin, Charles Camoin, the Belgian painter Henri Evenepoel, Jean Puy, Maurice de Vlaminck, Raoul Dufy, Othon Friesz, Georges Rouault, the Dutch painter Kees van Dongen, and Picasso's partner in Cubism, Georges Braque.

Fauvism, as a movement, had no concrete theories, and was short lived (they only had three exhibitions). Matisse was seen as a leader of the movement. He said he wanted to create art to delight; art as a decoration was his purpose; therefore his use of bright colors tries to maintain serenity of composition.

Among the influences of the movement were Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh, both of whom had begun using colors in a brighter more imaginative manner. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fauvism [Mar 2006]

See also: Fauvism - 1906 - modern art - color - painting

2006, Mar 10; 16:05 ::: Accursed share

In Georges Bataille's theory of consumption, the accursed share is that surplus energy or excessive and non-recuperable part of any economy which is destined to one of two modes of economic and social expenditure.

Either it is spent luxuriously and knowingly without gain in the arts, non-procreative sexuality, spectacles and sumptuous monuments, or it is obliviously destined to an outrageous and catastrophic outpouring in war.

See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accursed_share [Mar 2006]

See also: damnation - Georges Bataille - consumerism

2006, Mar 10; 16:05 ::: Les poètes maudits

A poète maudit (French: accursed or damned poet) is a poet living a life outside or against society. Abuse of drugs and alcohol, insanity, crime, violence, and in general any societal sin, often resulting in an early death are typical elements of the biography of a poète maudit.

The first poète maudit, and its prototype, was François Villon (1431-c. 1474) but the phrase wasn't coined until the end of the 19th century, with Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud considered typical examples.

Les poètes maudits is also a work by Paul Verlaine that was published in 1884. It is a hommage to Tristan Corbière, Arthur Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé, Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, Villiers de l'Isle-Adam and Pauvre Lelian (Paul Verlaine).

See also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Po%C3%A8te_maudit [Mar 2006]

Religious damnation
In some forms of Western Christian belief, damnation to hell is the punishment of God for persons with unredeemed sin. Damnation can be a motivator for conversions to Christianity. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damnation#Religious [Mar 2006]

See also: 1884 - Decadent movement - Symbolist literature - damnation - Arthur Rimbaud - Charles Baudelaire

2006, Mar 09; 23:05 ::: The Damned (1969) - Luchino Visconti

Ingrid Thulin in The Damned (1969) - Luchino Visconti [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Ingrid Thulin (January 27, 1926 – January 7, 2004) was a Swedish actress.

She was born as a fisherman's daughter in Sollefteå, Ångermanland in northern Sweden. She took ballet lessons as a girl and was accepted by the Stockholm Royal Dramatic Theatre's School in 1948. For years she worked with Swedish director Ingmar Bergman, where she developed her personal style, acting with neurotic intensity like in The Silence (1963) or Cries and Whispers (1972), making her the third actress of world fame coming from Sweden (after Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman).

She shared the best actress award at the 1958 Cannes Film Festival and received a Guldbagge Award as best actress in 1964, the first year the award was given out, for her performance in The Silence.

She was married to Harry Schein, the founder of the Swedish Film Institute, for more than 30 years until 1989, although they had lived separately for many years before the divorce.

In her later years she lived in Rome, Italy. She returned to Sweden for medical treatment and later died from cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, 20 days short of her 78th birthday. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ingrid_Thulin [Mar 2006]

See also: The Damned (1969) - Luchino Visconti - 1969

2006, Mar 09; 23:05 ::: The Amistad case

Today in history.

1841 - The Supreme Court of the United States rules in the Amistad case, concerning captive Africans who seized control of the slave-trading ship carrying them: the court rules that they had been taken into slavery illegally. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_9 [Mar 2006]

La Amistad (Spanish: friendship) was a Spanish merchant ship on which a rebellion by the African slaves it was carrying broke out in 1839 when the schooner was traveling along the coast of Cuba. The ship was taken over by a group of captives who had been kidnapped in Africa and sold into slavery. The Africans were later apprehended on the vessel near Long Island, New York by the United States Navy and taken into custody. The ensuing widely publicized court cases in the United States helped the abolitionism movement along. In 1840, a federal trial court found that the initial transport of the Africans across the Atlantic had been illegal and that they were not legally slaves but free. The U.S. Supreme Court affirmed this finding on March 9, 1841, and the Africans travelled home in 1842. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amistad_%28ship%29 [Mar 2006]

Amistad (1997) - Steven Spielberg [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

A simplified version of the events described was made into a movie called Amistad in 1997. It was directed by Steven Spielberg and starred Anthony Hopkins as John Quincy Adams, Djimon Hounsou as the Africans' leader Cinqué and Matthew McConaughey as their lawyer. This film also depicts the initial transport of the slaves from Africa to Cuba, showing group drownings (tying a number of slaves in line to a bundle of rocks and pushing the rocks off of the side of the ship, causing the slaves to fall into the sea), death by starvation and suffocation. This is, however, a dramatisation; there are no accounts of mass executions on that ship (or on the Amistad). --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amistad_%28ship%29#Legacy [Mar 2006]

Story dramatization is a process in which participants are invited to act out a story that their leader has shared with them. In traditional storytelling the leader acts as a storyteller and then the participants play out either the whole story or key playable moments. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Story_dramatization [Mar 2006]

See also: Steven Spielberg - rebellion - slave trade - 1840s - counterculture

2006, Mar 06; 23:05 ::: International Women's Day

Catherine the Great of Russia (1716-1795)

The 2002 film Russian Ark (U.S.SR.) has a rather bizarre depiction of Catherina.

Sister Funk () - Various artists [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

I'm a Good Woman () - Various artists [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

International Women's Day (IWD) is marked on March 8 every year. It is a major day of global celebration for the economic, political and social achievements of women. The first IWD was observed on February 28, 1909 in the United States following a declaration by the Socialist Party of America. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Women's_Day [Mar 2006]

A celebration is a joyous observation on the occasion of a special event.

The celebration may also be on the occasion of a special day in general, New Year, Christmas, Diwali. In most cases, national or cultural celebrations involve festivals and similar activities. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celebration_%28party%29 [Mar 2006]

See also: funk - women - day

2006, Mar 06; 19:05 ::: Disco not Disco (2000-2001)

Disco not Disco (2000) - Various Artists [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

1. Walking On Thin Ice - Yoko Ono 2. Cavern - Liquid Liquid 3. Tell You Today - Loose Joints 4. Spatisticus Autisticus - Ian Dury 5. Over And Over - Material 6. Wheel Me Out - Was (Not Was) 7. Kiss Me Again - Dinosaur 8. I Walk - Don Cherry 9. Voices Inside My Head - Common Sense 10. School Bell/Tree House - Indian Ocean 11. Macho City - Steve Miller Band
Three great Arthur Russell tracks, 'Tell You Today' and 'School Bell/Tree House', 'Kiss Me Again'. Ian Dury is a Sly & Robbie production.

Disco not Disco 2 (2001) - Various Artists [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

TRACKLISTING: 1. Bostich - Yello 2. Let's Go Swimming - Russell, Arthur 3. Timewarp - Grant, Eddy 4. Spectacle (Sean P edit) - Can 5. White Horse - Laidback 6. Problems d'Amour - Alexander Robotnik 7. Radio clash - Clash (2) 8. Ciguri - Material 9. Sting - Waits, Barry 10. Listen to the Rhythm Band - MD 20 20 11. Get down - Case, Connie & King Sporty 12. Fourteen days - Lex (2)

See also: Strut records - Dave Lee - post-disco - no wave

2006, Mar 06; 19:05 ::: Proto techno

A Number Of Names (1981) - Sharevari
Image sourced here.

Recorded through the summer of 1981, "Sharevari," complete with its mysterious spelling change, leaked out to the party club scene and quickly became a hit. A demo version was played at a Charivari party, and eventually on The Electrifying Mojo's radio show. There's been some debate as to whether A Number of Names predates Cybotron as the first Detroit-born "techno" record, but Lesley sorts out the finer details:

"I believe that ['Alleys of Your Mind'] beat us to release date, though I believe we had made ['Sharevari'] long before. We just didn't have the money to release it. It had hit the airwaves before the release of 'Alleys' and [Kraftwerk's Computer World]. Mojo played a version of it, but it hit the street after those records. I was a little miffed because I thought we were first." --Google cache, A version of this article originally appeared in Groove magazine. (C)2001 Dan Sicko

See also: Dan Sicko Techno Rebels: The Renegades of Electronic Funk, Billboard Books, 1999 ISBN 0823084280

More proto techno: Kraftwerk, E2 E4, Giorgio Moroder, Art of Noise, Juan Atkins's Cybotron project, Telex, New Order, Yello.

See also: Detroit techno - 1981

2006, Mar 06; 19:05 ::: 'Good Design' exhibitions 1950 -1955

MOMA held a series of Good Design exhibitions from 1950 to 1955 in collaboration with the Merchandise Mart of Chicago.

While the issue of good design is a pressing question today, we should remember that “good design” is also a phrase from the past that carries a mixed message. From 1949 to 1955 the Museum of Modern Art, along with the Merchandise Mart of Chicago, produced a series of exhibitions and educational programs to promote design excellence in the United States. It was called the "Good Design" program, and its director, Edgar Kaufmann, Jr., was aided by some of the leading designers of the day. In many ways the program was a great success, focusing public and corporate attention on the quality of products, affecting consumer perception and encouraging manufacturers to improve the quality of their products through wider use of professional designers. But the program was also controversial because it promoted a certain number of specific products selected by Kaufmann and his juries. To be sure, the criteria of "good design" were not mistaken. All of the products were examples of good design, displaying qualities of beauty as well as functional clarity and efficiency. But the selections also represented the tastes and preferences of a relatively small, elite social group, and many other examples of good design were neglected. Over time, the standards of the Good Design program became a heavy-handed authority in the minds of many people, standing as an obstacle to personal enjoyment of the diverse goods that surround us in our daily lives. The program ended up promoting standards that were too narrow for a country undergoing explosive technological, social and cultural change. --http://id.bobulate.com/readings/gooddesign.pdf [Mar 2006]

See also: 'good design' - MoMA - good taste

2006, Mar 06; 19:05 ::: Einstein Tower (1921) - Erich Mendelsohn

Unidentified photograph of Einstein Tower (1921) - Erich Mendelsohn

The Einstein Tower is an astrophysical observatory in the Albert Einstein Science Park in Potsdam, Germany designed by architect Erich Mendelsohn. It was built for Albert Einstein to support experiments and observations to validate his relativity theory. The building was first conceived around 1917, built from 1920 to 1921 after a fund-raising drive, and became operational in 1924. It is still a working solar observatory today as part of the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam.

This was one of Mendelsohn's first major projects, completed when a young Richard Neutra was on his staff, and his best-known building.

The exterior was originally conceived in concrete, but due to construction difficulties much of the building was actually realized in brick, covered with stucco. It underwent a full renovation in 1999, for its 75th anniversary, to correct problems with dampness and decay that had meant decades of repair. It is often cited as one of the few landmarks of expressionist architecture.

According to lore, Mendelsohn took Einstein on a long tour of the completed structure, waiting for some sign of approval. The design, while logical and perfectly sufficient to its purpose, stood out like an "ungainly spaceship" in the suburbs of Potsdam. Einstein said nothing until hours later, during a meeting with the building committee, when he whispered his one-word judgment: "Organic". (Otto Friedrich, Before the Deluge.) Mendelsohn himself said that he had designed it out of some unknown urge, letting it emerge out of "the mystique around Einstein's universe" (Wolf von Eckardt, Erich Mendelsohn.) --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Einstein_Tower [Mar 2006]

See also: 1921 - expressionism - architecture - biomorphism - Germany

2006, Mar 06; 18:05 ::: Knoll Associates and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Barcelona Chair (1929) - Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Knoll Associates acquired the exclusive rights in 1953 to produce this collection to Mies' exacting standards.
Unidentified photograph sourced here.

Florence Bassett Knoll (1917- ) Birthplace: USA

While a student at the Kingswood School on the campus of the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, Florence Knoll Bassett (neé Schust) became a protegée of Eero Saarinen. She studied architecture at Cranbrook, the Architectural Association in London and the Armour Institute (Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago). She worked briefly for Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer and Wallace K. Harrison. In 1946, she became a full business and design partner and married Hans Knoll, after which they formed Knoll Associates. She was at once a champion of world-class architects and designers and an exceptional architect in her own right. As a pioneer of the Knoll Planning Unit, she revolutionized interior space planning. Her belief in "total design" – embracing architecture, manufacturing, interior design, textiles, graphics, advertising and presentation – and her application of design principles in solving space problems were radical departures from the standard practice in the 1950s, but were quickly adopted and remain widely used today. For her extraordinary contributions to architecture and design, Florence Knoll was accorded the National Endowment for the Arts' prestigious 2002 National Medal of Arts.

Her work was influenced by some of the greatest designers of her day. Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer all had a part in her architectural education, and her designs reflect the European aesthetic.

Her American interpretation of minimalist, rationalist design theories is clearly evident in Knoll's storage pieces. She mixed woods and metals to great effect and added laminates as they became popular. Dressers and desks are all square in design but never lack for quality. Hanging cabinets have glass shelves, sliding doors and drop down fronts that can be used as bars.

In the 1950's Florence Knoll's work was often displayed at the Museum of Modern Art's "Good Design" exhibits. Although Knoll did a great deal of residential work, the International Style she worked in was specially in successful corporate offices.

Knoll's vision for the new office was clean and uncluttered, and the corporate boom of the 1960's provided the perfect opportunity for her to change the way people looked at work in their offices. Her open plan layouts created clean, uncluttered spaces a perfect venue for her furniture. Companies like H. J. Heinz, CBS, and Connecticut General Life Insurance all embraced this new way of organizing business space. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Knoll [Mar 2006]

See also: 1929 - Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - industrial design - furniture - USA

2006, Mar 06; 18:05 ::: Tizio lamp (1972) - Richard Sapper

Tizio lamp (1972) - Richard Sapper
Image sourced here.

Richard Sapper (1932 - ) --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard Sapper [Aug 2005]

Minimalist design
The term minimalism is also used to describe a trend in design and architecture wherein the subject is reduced to its necessary elements.

Architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe adopted the motto "Less is more" to describe his aesthetic tactics of flattening and emphasizing the building's frame, eliminating interior walls and adopting an open plan, and reducing the structure to a strong, transparent, elegant skin. Designer Buckminster Fuller adopted a similar saying, "Doing more with less", but his concerns were more oriented towards technology and engineering than aesthetics.

Contemporary architects working in this tradition include John Pawson, Eduardo Souto de Moura, Tadao Ando, and Peter Zumthor. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimalism#Minimalist_design [Mar 2006]

See also: industrial design - minimalism - 1972

2006, Mar 06; 15:05 ::: Cul-de-sac (1966) - Roman Polanski

Cul-de-sac (1966) - Roman Polanski

Cul-de-sac is a film made in 1966 directed by Roman Pola?ski. It is Polanski's second film in English, filmed on the island of Lindisfarne in Britain.

The cast includes Donald Pleasence, Françoise Dorléac, Lionel Stander, Jack MacGowran, Iain Quarrier, Geoffrey Sumner, Renee Houston, William Franklyn, Trevor Delaney, Marie Kean, and Jacqueline Bisset.

Written by Gerard Brach and Roman Polanski

Photography by Gil Taylor

Editing by Alastair McIntyre

Music by Krzysztof Komeda.

The film begins with gangster Dickie (Lionel Stander) pushing his broken-down car through rising seawaters while his companion Albie (Jack MacGowran) lies inside, bleeding from a gunshot wound after a bungled robbery. Cut off by the unexpected rising tide, they are on the only road to a bleak and remote tidal island where, in a dark castle on a hilltop, the effeminate and neurotic George (Donald Pleasence) lives with his luscious young wife Teresa (Françoise Dorléac). Dickie then proceeds to hold the two hostage as he awaits rescue from his boss, the mysterious Katelbach, even throughout an unexpected visit from one of George's old work colleagues.

Like his previous film Repulsion, it explores themes of horror, frustrated sexuality, and alienation, which have become characteristic of most of Pola?ski's films, notably Rosemary's Baby and The Tenant. Stylishly filmed in black and white by Gil Taylor with superb locations and an excellent cast, Cul-de-sac was awarded the 1966 Golden Bear at the Berlin Film Festival.

The film was shot on location on the island of Lindisfarne, off the coast of Northumberland, England. The small castle is now a National Trust property and can be toured by the public. Despite forty years having elapsed, the building and surroundings are largely unchanged.

Cul-de-Sac has been compared in tone and theme to the works of Samuel Beckett, and it is interesting to note that actor Jack MacGowran was renowned for his knowing interpretations of the works of Beckett.

It features Jacqueline Bisset in a small part, her second film appearance.

Cul-de-sac is the French phrase for dead end street. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cul-de-Sac [Aug 2005]

See also: Roman Polanski - European cinema - 1966

2006, Mar 06; 12:05 ::: Fantastic Planet (1973)

Fantastic Planet (1973) - René Laloux [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Fantastic Planet (1973) [Soundtrack] [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

Fantastic Planet is the English language version of an animated 1973 science fiction film directed by René Laloux. The film was an international production between France and Czechoslovakia and its original title is La Planéte Sauvage. It was distributed in the United States by Roger Corman. It won the special jury prize at the Cannes Film Festival in 1973

The story is based on a novel, Oms en Serie, by the French writer Stefan Wul.

The film is chiefly noted for its surreal imagery, the work of French writer and artist Roland Topor. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fantastic_Planet [Aug 2005]

See also: Fantastic Planet (1973) - French cinema - Stefan Wul - Alain Goraguer - René Laloux - Roland Topor

2006, Mar 06; 10:05 ::: Keywords

In search of Jahsonic.com definitions.

Inspiration machine, inspiration engine, bluffer's guide, guide to modern living.

See also: keyword - inspiration - modern - living - machine - knowledge - search - taxonomy

2006, Mar 06; 09:05 ::: The New Design Source Book (1986|1997) - Penny Sparke et all

In search of design connoisseurs.

The New Design Source Book (1986|1997) - Penny Sparke, Felice Hodges, Emma Dent Coad, Anne Stone, Hugh Aldersey-Williams [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

From Library Journal
The product of five British and American design writers led by Royal College of Art design historian Sparke, this eye-catching book is a checklist of some of the best objects created in the last 150 years in Europe and America. Some are functional and some purely decorative; look here for everything from William Morris wallpaper to Michele de Lucchi's 1984 vacuum cleaners. Each chapter covers a particular era or art movement, starting with the Arts and Crafts Movement (1850-1900) and finishing with the computer age. Each is a time capsule of events and a visual inventory of architecture, costume, everyday household objects, and technological equipment. This is not a comprehensive study, but it offers a decent overview of typical design motifs for each time period. Libraries owning an earlier edition of this book (Design Source Book, 1986. o.p.) may skip the present volume because, except for parts of the final chapter, it is identical to its predecessor.?Margarete Gross, Chicago P.L. Copyright 1997 Reed Business Information, Inc.

Noteworthy about this book that it lists the nature of each movement, its inspirations and influences and a subdivision per country. [Mar 2006]

See also: design - industrial design - Arts and Crafts (1850 - 1900) - Art Nouveau (1890 1905) - Art Deco (1925 - 1939) - Streamline (1935 - 1955) - 1950s - 1960s - 1970s - 1980s

2006, Mar 06; 10:05 ::: Desk (ca. 1902) - Carlo Bugatti

Desk (ca. 1902) - Carlo Bugatti
Image sourced here. [Mar 2006]

Carlo Bugatti (16 février 1856-31 mars 1940).

C'était un décorateur, un architecte, un créateur et un fabricant de mobilier, de modèles d'orfèvrerie, d'instruments de musique italien. Il a même créé une bicyclette de compétition.

Il débute à Milan vers 1880 après avoir suivi les cours de l'Académie Brera en 1875 et en france. Il a obtenu ses premiers succès hors d'Italie en 1888. Il a triomphé lors de l'exposition d'art décoratif de Turin en 1902. Il retourne à Paris en 1904.

Père de Rembrandt Bugatti, le sculpteur animalier et d'Ettore Bugatti, le constructeur d'automobiles Bugatti, il s'est retiré à Pierrefonds en 1910.

En 1937, il s'est installé en à Molsheim, en Alsace où son fils Ettore avait monté son usine. C'est là qu'il meurt en 1940. --http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlo_Bugatti [Mar 2006]

See also: art nouveau - design - furniture - 1902

2006, Mar 06; 09:05 ::: Landi Chair (1938) - Hans Coray

Landi Chair (1938) - Hans Coray

Hans Coray. (1906 - 1991) was a Swiss designer best known for his 1938 Landi chair. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans Coray [Mar 2006]

Hans Coray. (Swiss, 1906-1991). Landi Chair. 1938. Bent and pressed aluminum, and rubber, 30 1/2 x 21 1/4 x 22 1/8" (77.5 x 54 x 56.2 cm). Manufactured by P. & W. Blattmann Metallwaren-Fabrik, Switzerland. --http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O%3AAD%3AE%3A8062&page_number=1&template_id=1&sort_order=1 [Mar 2006]

MoMA has an important design collection, which includes works from such legendary designers as Paul László, the Eameses, Isamu Noguchi, and George Nelson.

See also: Moma Google gallery

See also: machine age - MoMA - design - industrial design - chair - furniture - 1938

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