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A bias is a prejudice in a general or specific sense, usually in the sense for having a predilection to one particular view or ideology. One is said to be biased if one is influenced by one's biases. A bias could for example lead one to accept or non-accept the truth of a claim, not because of the strength of the claim itself, but because it does or does not correspond to one's own preconceived ideas. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bias, Apr 2004

Publication bias

Publication bias, also called the positive outcome bias, is typically the tendency for researchers to publish experimental results that have a positive result (found something), while consequently not publishing findings which have a negative result (found that something did not happen).

Appreciative Criticism [...]

André Bazin is known as a proponent of appreciative criticism, wherein only critics who like a film can write a review of it, thus encouraging constructive criticism.

Trait ascription bias

poster for The Black Klansman (1966) - Ted V. Mikels

poster for The Black Klansman (1966) - Ted V. Mikels

Trait ascription bias is the tendency for people to view themselves as relatively variable in terms of personality, behavior and mood while viewing others as much more predictable in their personal traits across different situations. This may be because our own internal states are much more observable and available to us than those of others.

This attributional bias has an obvious role in the formation and maintenance of stereotypes and prejudice, combined with the negativity effect.

A similar bias on the group level is called the outgroup homogeneity bias.


* Kammer, D. (1982). Differences in trait ascriptions to self and friend: Unconscious founding intensity from variability. Psychological Reports 51, 99-102. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trait_ascription_bias [Apr 2005]

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