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Related: Afrocentrism - black power - Frantz Fanon - Harlem Renaissance - Négritude - Martin Luther King, Jr. - Marcus Garvey
Black NationalismBlack Nationalism, political and social movement prominent in the 1960s and early '70s among African Americans in the United States. The movement, which can be traced back to Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association of the 1920s, sought to acquire economic power and to infuse among blacks a sense of community and group feeling. Many adherents to Black Nationalism assumed the eventual creation of a separate black nation by African Americans. As an alternative to being assimilated by the American nation, which is predominantly white, black nationalists sought to maintain and promote their separate identity as a people of black ancestry. With such slogans as "black power" and "black is beautiful," they also sought to inculcate a sense of pride among blacks.
Black Nationalism, also known as black separatism, is a complex set of beliefs emphasizing the need for the cultural, political, and economic separation of African Americans from white society. Comparatively few African Americans have embraced thoroughgoing separatist philosophies. In his classic study Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915, August Meier noted that the general black attitude has been one of "essential ambivalence." On the other hand, Nationalist assumptions inform the daily actions and choices of many diaspora Africans. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_nationalism [Oct 2004]
Black PanthersThe Black Panthers young African-American activists and socialists based in Oakland, California. Collaborated with white radicals and counterculture advocates in the spirit of Malcolm X.
Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (North Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Black Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. He was also founder of the Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity.
During his life, Malcolm went from being a drug dealer and burglar to one of the most prominent black nationalist leaders in the United States; he was considered by some as a martyr of Islam and a champion of equality. As a militant leader, Malcolm X advocated black pride, economic self-reliance, and identity politics. He ultimately rose to become a world-renowned African American/Pan-Africanist and human rights activist.
Following a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1964, Malcolm converted to orthodox Islam. Less than a year later he was assassinated in Washington Heights on the first day of National Brotherhood Week. Although three members of the Nation of Islam were convicted of his assassination (one of whom confessed), there are several conspiracy theories positing the involvement of elements of the United States Government. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_X [Jan 2007]
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