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"It is often forgotten that (dictionaries) are artificial repositories, put together well after the languages they define. The roots of language are irrational and of a magical nature." -- Jorge Luis Borges, Prologue to "El otro, el mismo."

The Unabridged Devil's Dictionary - Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]


A dictionary is a list of words with their definitions, a list of characters with their glyphs, or a list of words with corresponding words in other languages. In some languages, words can appear in many different forms, but only the lemma form appears as the main word or headword in most dictionaries. Many dictionaries also provide pronunciation information; grammatical information; word derivations, histories, or etymologies; illustrations; usage guidance; and examples in phrases or sentences. Dictionaries are most commonly found in the form of a book. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictionary [Apr 2006]


A lexicon is a list of words together with additional information, i.e. a dictionary. Additionally, in linguistics, a lexicon has a slightly more specialized definition, as it includes the lexemes used to actualize words. Lexemes are formed according to morpho-syntactic rules and express sememes.

A lexicon may also be the mental vocabulary in a speaker's mind.

Furthermore an indivividual lexical knowledge is a term used in academia to refer to an individual's vocabulary knowledge. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexicon

Artlex Art Dictionary (Lexicon)

For artists, collectors, students and educators in art production, criticism, history, aesthetics, and education. You will find definitions for more than 3,300 terms used in discussing visual culture, along with thousands of supporting images, pronunciation notes, great quotations and cross-references. --http://www.artlex.com/ http://www.artcyclopedia.com/

The Unabridged Devil's Dictionary (1911) - Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce

  1. The Unabridged Devil's Dictionary (1911) - Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
    Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914?) was one of nineteenth-century America's most renowned satirists. The author of short stories, essays, fables, poems, and sketches, he was a popular columnist and wrote for several San Francisco and London newspapers during his forty-year journalism career. David E. Schultz is a technical editor. He is coeditor, with S. T. Joshi, of both A Sole Survivor, a collection of Bierce's autobiographical writings, and Lord of a Visible World, an autobiography-in-letters of H. P. Lovecraft. S. T. Joshi is a freelance writer and editor. He is the editor of The Collected Fables of Ambrose Bierce and author of H. P. Lovecraft: A Life. --About the Author via amazon.com

    A virtual onslaught of acerbic, confrontational wordplay, The Unabridged Devil's Dictionary offers some 1,600 wickedly clever definitions to the vocabulary of everyday life. Little is sacred and few are safe, for Ambrose Bierce targets just about any pursuit, from matrimony to immortality, that allows our willful failings and excesses to shine forth.

    This is the most extensively annotated edition of a work by Bierce ever published, and the first edition of The Devil's Dictionary to provide detailed bibliographical information on every entry. It will be celebrated by wits and word lovers everywhere. --Book Description via amazon.com

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - American Heritage Dictionaries

  1. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - American Heritage Dictionaries [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]

    The latest edition of the American Heritage Dictionary is out, and that's hot news--not just for the resolute followers of lexicographical minutiae, but for the general reading and writing public as well. Why? Because the American Heritage is a long-standing favorite family dictionary (never underestimate the value of pictures) and one of the prime dictionary references for magazines, newspapers, and dot.com content providers. For scads of writers and editors across the U.S., it sets the standard on matters of style and lexicographical authority. --via Amazon.com

    The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. Its creation was spurred by the controversy over the Webster's Third New International Dictionary. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Heritage_Dictionary [Apr 2006]

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