European pornography


By Bill Landis and Michelle Clifford


France has always been the center of l'amour in the form of erotic literature, art and motion pictures. It's been the birthplace of the sexy foreign film with the beautiful star. This Gallic tradition was initiated by Roger Vadim in 1956 with And God Created Women, which brought the world sex kitten Bridget Bardot. The French art house films of the 1960s pushed matters sophisticated to kinky extremes. Luis Bunuel's Belle De Jour paved the way, with blonde glamour queen Catherine Denevue playing a masochistic inclinations part-time in a Parisian bordello.

Two directors, Max Pecas and Jose Benazeraf, were the most prolific of the French sex cinema wave of the 1960s. Influential to their peers while making the most thoughtful and visually stunning films. Both men produced astonishingly lush films which managed to walk the tightrope between the suggestive and the explicit. Pecas had a forte for mentally provocative films like The Fourth Sex and Her and She and Him. Complexly entangled affairs that involved everything from not so innocent young lovers to homosexual machiavellianism . Benzeraf recasted film noir genres into sexy sadomasochistic mis en scenes like Sexus. Sexus featured a sassy topless whip dance sequence which became emblazoned in the mind of many a fetishist and went on to be preserved in numerous international sex in the cinema books.

Benzeraf's and Pecas' French softcore films were imported to the U.S. by Radley Metzger (known to hardcore afficionados as Henry Paris) and his partner, Ava Leighton, through their company, Audubon Films. Radley would slightly recut and retrim his French imports for American tastes. He then mimicked the style of Pecas and Benzeraf and brought it home to America with his own highly successful softcore movies like Carmen Baby and The Lickerish Quartet.

Although French films possessed a sexy allure not unlike an exotic Parisian perfume, France itself remained under a right wing government until 1975. A government which deemed hardcore films technically illegal. However, the more daring of the exploitation directors began sneaking fucking and sucking into their already risque films. Leading this trend were gutsy Eurosleaze stalwarts Jesse Franco and Jean Rollin.

In April 1975, a leftist government took hold in France and abolished censorship. This momentous occasion was celebrated by a showing of American Alex De Renzy's History of the Blue Movie [1970], which broke French boxoffice records by selling a quarter million tickets. Seeing there was money to be made, France then began making its own hardcore films in earnest, paralleling the rise of porno chic in the United States.

The films were analogous to the pornography produced in California during the seventies which promised a universe of knowing youthful sluts and warm bubbly hot tubs. French porn was dedicated to portraying the classic bourgeois lifestyle as well, with production values including large houses with snazzy sportscars, terrific original storylines and on target casting. French hardcore had its own galaxy of degenerate beauties for stars. Claudine Beccarie was essentially France's Linda Lovelace in looks and attitude. She was a hardbitten veteran of Algerian brothels and of Lasse Braun loops who could take on anything. Claudine was the subject of the hardcore documentary, Exhibition. The iconographically named Penelope Lamour was a big titted brunette who possessed the same charming Betty Boop manner in a straight fuck or a gangbang. Sylvia Bourdon was a Parisian Gloria Leonard, a grizzled swinger who admittedly dug the whole scene for both depraved kicks and money. Sylvia was kinky, outrageous and had a true loud mouth. Exhibition 2 documented Sylvia's forays into extreme sadomasochism. Mary Mendum a/k/a Rebecca Brooke was America's export, a pristine, shapely blonde romantically linked to Radley Metzger.

Out of this whole tantalizing female bunch, Beatrice Harnois holds her own as everyman's wet dream. Beatrice's extremely petite yet shapely size got her perpetually cast playing young girls. And she played them out with passion. She showed a conviction with not the slightest hint of self-consciousness. Beatrice was equally believable as a slut or a virgin ballbreaker. With all this fresh cinematic activity, the old guard of French softcore directors began weaving hardcore sex into their narratives. A new crop of filmmakers made significant films of lasting impact, such as Frederic Lansac. Lansac was a pseudonym for Claude Mulot, director of the cult sex driven horror film The Blood Rose. Lansac made the French equivalent to Deep Throat. A defining mark in the genre and widely seen both France and America, Pussy Talk showcases the talents of three leading stars --Penelope Lamour, Sylvia Bourdon and Beatrice Harnois.

Pussy Talk is both a great porn movie and a subversive cinema classic. Genuinely shocking, with the casually horrific humor of a French surgery cartoon. The heroine (Penelope Lamour) loves her husband but suffers from inexplicable bouts of sexual mania, from casual pickups to suddenly spreading her legs and masturbating at a cocktail party. Suddenly, things take a turn for the worse - Penelope's pussy begins talking with its lips moving. Her pussy turns into a shouting id, bellowing over the phone for her husband to leave work, come home and fuck her. There are startling point of view shots from inside Penelope's pussy looking out as it talks. Her talking pussy repeats a gangbang Penelope experienced in a Parisian porno theater to the consternation of her husband.

Hurt and confused, Penelope's husband seeks solace with an old college girlfriend, who's now a psychiatrist. They fuck as his wife masturbates, and the shrink thinks Penelope's talking pussy is some sort of medical/psychological landmark. The paparazzi get wind of the situation and hook up with Penelope's perverse aunt Barbara (Sylvia Bourdon), who raised her. Aunt Barbara spends her days in her art studio fucking and sucking pairs of youthful male models. She's all too happy to accept the paparazzi's cash in exchange for revealing Penelope's childhood.

Beatrice Harnois plays Penelope as a young girl in a series of sizzling and disturbing flashbacks. Aunt Barbara raised her because Penelope's father molested her. Penelope's stepmother walked in on the scene, shot him and killed herself. As a horny virgin tease, Penelope peeks on her boyfriend showering, gives him a blowjob but he leaves without fucking her. In the midst of all this chaos, she winds up collecting her own cherry on a Pinnochio doll's nose, leaving it bloody. Beatrice and a schoolgirl pal, also fuck a teacher nicknamed Big Dick in a male wish fulfillment scene of being overpowered by two French girls.

The paparazzi catch up with Penelope and her husband, who have gone into hiding. The husband battles them naked, but loses. Penelope flees to Aunt Barbara's. She slips Penelope a Mickey Finn and the paparazzo (who bears a disquieting resemblance to Helmut Newton) fucks her pussy in a grotesque p.o.v. shot with his microphone. Finally, Penelope's husband balls her until her pussy quits yakking. Only to find his cock begins to speak. A freeze frame of it ends the movie.

Every bit as incredible as its plot, Pussy Talk is a visually overwhelming movie that mows the viewer down with a constant barrage of high frequency sex. Director Lansac is a rarity, a combination of the most perverse art house auteurs, an exploitation director with an original sense of erotic shock, and a depraved pornographer.

Lansac's horror roots are apparent in The Kinky Ladies of Bourbon Street. Like Pussy Talk, the movie was a major hit in Manhattan at the World Theater on 49th Street between 6th and 7th Avenues. Generally clean and lacking the usual preponderance of Times Square nuts, the World was the birthplace for porno chic with Deep Throat, showed many of these French releases, and the Henry Paris hardcore classics like Misty Beethoven.

Kinky Ladies opens with Maud, the protagonist, being driven in an antique limousine to the graves of three close friends. Each is seen via their photos on a simple wooden crucifix grave marker. The spirits of the dead women speak to Maud and she continues the symbiotic relationship that existed when they were all alive. Maud's dead friends had met her after they had attempted suicide. Each were caught in socially humiliating sexual situations. One was a stewardess caught fucking Idi Amin in an airport toilet. Another was a hotel chambermaid who blew a married man as he foot fucked her, with his wife bitching in the bathroom. Caught by her peeking, masturbating boss, she's fired when she spurns him. The third woman was a singer. She OD'd after being used as a receptacle in an orgy with a DJ to promote her single.

The three women meet in the hospital and hook up with Maud, who offers to facilitate their suicide wish of getting fucked to death. A sort of female version of La Grande Bouffe ensues. The women take on all comers, from postmen to delivery boys, in a host of imaginative ways. One startling scene involves a guy in the middle of an anal double penetration sandwich, with him fucking one woman up the ass as the other balls him with a strap-on dildo.

The first girl leaves with a literal bang, masturbating with a lit stick of dynamite. The next of our protagonists dies choking on the come of three garbagemen, her body abandoned in a heap of trash. The last is fucked to death by Maud's perpetually erect chauffeur, her corpse falling in the pool as slow motion bathes it with necrophiliac passion.

Like Pussy Talk, Kinky Ladies has an incredible shocker ending. Maud, now aged and walking with a cane, is begged by the three spirits to go and bring them more women to keep them company. A pan of the once sparse graveyard reveals hundreds of similar simple wooden crosses as a chorus of voices plead, "Maud! Bring us more! You must go on!" The chauffeur, flashing his constant hard on under a robe, drives the weary Maud away to find more women who'll share their terminal passion.

Kinky Ladies makes the most of its three knockout stars: Lasse Braun models Helga Trixi and Veronique Monod, and Penelope Lamour. The graphic impact of the hardcore sex works towards propelling the plot forward into a startling resolution. The erotic death impulse underlying exploitation horror films is made explicit here.

Exploitation roots are also apparent in The Seduction of Amy (known in France as Phantasmes), directed by Jean Rollin of Eurosleaze fame. The film has a castle setting similar to his vampire films, a supernaturally tinged plot, and a constant stream of Tijuana style hardcore sex, all featuring pretty French girls. There's the trademark Rollin kinky sprinkles of bondage, whipping and a bevy of nude beauties trapped in a cage.

Eurosleaze afficionados will also want to catch the Janine Reynaud vehicles Marianne Bouquet and The Felines. Reynaud, who starred in Jesse Franco's Succubus, is the prototypical big titted old lady with a sensuous scowl, a Gallic Dyanne Thorne. The film Marianne Bouquet is a series of entertaining romantic entanglements directed by and starring Janine's husband, Michel Lemoine. A stud in French sex films since the early sixties, Lemoine has the unsettling looks of an early cosmetic surgery indulgent. The Felines features Janine as a Parisian high fashion lady. It's truly for fans of Janine: you see her cheat on her husband, fondle herself and watch stag movies at wild parties. The film integrates hardcore inserts shot domestically. The stag movie at the party features a surprised Eric Edwards fucking and getting head from three women, including Darby Lloyd Raines.

For a light but no less potent sip of French bubbly, have a taste of Candy's Candy. Fans of Sylvia Bourdon and, especially, Beatrice Harnois, will be doubly pleased. In Candy's Candy, Beatrice is a model in dirty snapshots for a girlie magazine. The machinations of the magazine's assembly set into motion a smorgasbord of raunchy sex which includes lesbianism, exhibitionism, public sex, gangbangs, two girls and a guy, and a couple fucking as a dirty movie plays on them. Candy's Candy is imaginatively and stylishly rendered, with an aggression that's intimidating to the faint hearted. Well received by adult publications at the time of its initial release - Screw magazine awarded it four cocks - Candy's Candy was a Manhattan hit. It was released through Chelly Wilson's Variety Pictures and played the Lido East on the upper east side and the Cine Lido, formerly the site of the Copacabana nightclub, in Times Square. Candy's Candy has amusing dubbing in the manner of exploitation movies, with put-on French accents, and a perversely jingly theme song.

If you can't get enough of Beatrice Harnois, Felicia will more than satisfy your primal, private urges. It's one of softcore master Max Pecas' first attempts at hardcore, and one of his best films. Mary Mendum, billed as "Rebecca Brooke," plays a photographer who is happily married, sexually and emotionally. Enter Felicia (Beatrice), her friend's pesky teenage daughter who's pawned off on her and her husband for three weeks. Felicia is a pouty virgin ballbreaker, a pushy bottom who uses any means necessary to provoke sexual attention. Felicia first makes her presence felt feet first. She catches two topless models rifling through the couple's jewelry after a photo shoot. Felicia forces them to have sex at camera point and shrimp her, as the other model's foot buries itself in the shrimper's crotch.

Felicia sets to work on the couple, flashing, peeking, teasing, interrupting, tantruming. Mary sets up a situation that any man would be a fool to refuse. She offers her husband a fling with Felicia, knowing the girl comes with a quick ticking time limit. He refuses, but the knowledge that he could if he so wanted makes him love his wife that much more. Mary narcissistically identifies with Felicia. She's reminded of when she was young and liked older men. After she photographs Felicia, Felicia seduces her. Felicia then sets her sights on the husband, provoking him to be sadistic. A spanking escalates into him bottle and assfucking her. Felicia then worshipfully shrimps him and they finally fuck. She shows him blood from her broken cherry. Mary walks in and is jealous.

Felicia builds to a wonderful denouement. Felicia is overjoyed that she's made so much trouble that she's finally become the center of attention -and can solve the couple's spat. A couple chaser's delight! She blindfolds Mary, leads her to her husband, and all three have a climactic swing together. Felicia is as romantic and gorgeously executed as Pecas' softcore movies like Her and She and Him. The film sustains a highly erotic gesture and tease atmosphere while delivering on the explicit sex. Pecas keeps things soft focused but never makes them falsely lyrical. The three leads are completely believable in actions and looks. Stunning women to start with, Harnois and Mendum have rarely been so flatteringly photographed. Beatrice's size is used to maximum effect; she is infinitely petite next to any of her co-stars.

Felicia had a run at New York's Quad Cinema, a small fourplex in New York's Greenwich Village owned by Al Goldstein. During the swinging seventies, one of the Quads was devoted to popular hardcore features.

A more obscure but no less sizzling Max Pecas film is Sweet Taste of Honey. It opens with quick location shots of the stars on Hollywood Boulevard and the surrounding palm trees. The focus quickly shifts to our classy blonde heroine. She's driving her Bentley through a forest. She sees a couple is fucking against a tree... and then the woman slits her writs, falling nude to the ground... was it a fantasy or memory? Sweet Taste of Honey uses this fantasy/memory refraction to motivate the intense sexual encounters that ensue.

The heroine stays at a country boarding house. She overhears the fuck sounds of the passionate newlyweds next door. The newlywed husband reminders her of her ex-husband. Graphic flashbacks involving her ex-husband follow, from poolside fucking to a threesome with another woman in a room filled with mannequins. The heroine seduces the newlywed husband, but also has a twisted relationship with the inn's seedy owner. In the past, she had sucked off him and her husband at once, and they dumped champagne on her. The sleazebag eventually arranges for the heroine to be the blindfolded centerpiece of a candlelit gangbang.

Sweet Taste of Honey is among Pecas' raunchiest films, with non-stop hardcore fucking, yet with no sacrifice to his elegant style. All the elements one expects from Pecas - kinky touches of suggestive S&M, blindfolds, a wife having sex with another woman to turn on her husband -are here in king sized proportions. Sweet Taste of Honey offers the spectacle of the degenerate private sex life of the proper bourgeois woman.

By 1976, Radley Metzger had imported many the hit French porn films to America, like Felicia. Just as Metzger emulated the softcore style of Pecas in his 1960 films, Metzger began to be influenced by the new wave of French hardcore. Metzger's Misty Beethoven was partially shot in Paris and bore the raunchy yet sophisticated touch of films like Pussy Talk. The last feature to bear Radley's real name was one of his most unique. The Punishment of Anne was originally released as L'Image in 1976, at the same time his XXX rated "Henry Paris" films were hits at the porno grindhouse, the World Theater. L'Image played New York's non-porn Eastside Cinema.

The film cut close to the edge of hardcore and quickly became known to S&M afficionados. However, despite a free tie-in book as a promotional tactic, the film had a limited theatrical run. L'Image surfaced on video as The Punishment of Anne, containing previously unseen brief hardcore sequences of cocksucking and pussy manipulation. Not only is the film stronger as a result, but it achieves what Metzger always drove at as the optimal use of hardcore within a story feature.

The Punishment of Anne is also special in that its star, Mary Mendum, was Radley's paramour [A lover, especially one in an adulterous relationship--American Heritage Dictionary] when it was made. She's appropriately cast as a supreme lowdown masochist. The film is one of the definitive cinematic meditations on sadomasochism. Radley had good source material. The novel on which the film was based, L'Image, was a French S&M classic in the Story of O mode.

In The Punishment of Anne, Jean (Carl Parker) hooks up at a literary party with an older lady, Claire (Marilyn Roberts). Claire keeps the company of a completely submissive female slave, Anne (Mary Mendum). In no time at all Jean is sucked into an S&M vortex with the two women. Anne is forced to piss in a garden before Jean and Claire, her face a combination of ecstatic submission and girlish shame. Claire presents Jean with a series of severe torture photos of Anne, and then flogs the girl in front of him. Anne is lent out to Jean as his personal sex slave, and she services him everywhere from parked cars to pissoirs. He shows off her whip marks to a salesgirl and they have a three-way in the dressing room.

The heaviest sadism occurs when Anne is bound by an elaborate chandelier suspension device, blindfolded and tormented by Claire with hot needles that pierce her flesh. Claire's scheme finally works with Jean. He's so aroused by it all that he finally slaps her around, dominates her and roughly fucks her on a staircase.

The Punishment of Anne is highly erotic from start to finish,, the type of movie you'll replay in both your mind and on your VCR. It far surpasses the adaptation of the Story of O. The film is driven by the throbbing pulse of the primal S&M urge, yet is brilliantly precise in execution. It's Metzger's most personal film, perfectly cast with the actors playing characters who express aspects of his mindset. Carl Parker as Jean is a male model version of Radley as voyeur. Marilyn Roberts, known for psychodramatic stage work like Futz, is appropriately dominant as Claire, older and severe, but still very shapely. Claire seems to be a proxy for Radley's sadistic urge and other times bears a startling resemblance to his business partner, Ava Leighton. Mary Mendum's Anne is on a par with Catherine Denevue in Belle De Jour in personifying the physically beautiful masochist who has a submissive manner that mesmerizes sadists. By the time the film was released, however, the relationship between Metzger and Mendum had been severed. Radley's talent of turning cast members into larger than life exaggerations of themselves has made more than one actor deeply resent him after the fact.

This glorious arc of eroticism in France came to a screeching halt in 1976. The so-called "X-law" was passed, which was designed to and succeeded in crippling the nascent porn industry. It severely limited box office advances exhibitors could give distributors, levied a tax on pornography that supposedly went back into the production of legitimate films, and limited the theaters where hardcore could be shown. Up to that point, the films had been exhibited fairly widely, and was becoming a threat in that porn was more popular than the conventional French films.

At the same time in America, one man involved in distributing Pussy Talk got a visit from the F.B.I. There was a knock at the door and the fed began "we know who your family members are... we know where you went to high school...Stop distributing Pussy Talk." Besides the U.S. government's support of the allied French government, the only other logical explanation for this visit was the scene that the distributor "couldn't talk about." Beatrice Harnois, portraying a kid, while sexually defiling the image of Pinnochio, broke not only her character's cherry but a Disney trademark.


Piccadilly is London's Times Square, all gigantic, glaring neon. It's where you go to buy sex in one form or another. Diversions is Piccadilly's export to the mid seventies wave of imported porn. It was directed by Derek Ford, the British exploitation pioneer who made I am a Groupie. Diversions employs many exploitation elements through its anecdotal narrative. A woman is transported in handcuffs and under guard by train to prison, and she has a series of erotic daydreams. They range from lyrical haystack fucking to being a Red Cross nurse in World War II raped by a group of soldiers. The biggest shock scene is the vampire fantasy, where she stabs the guy while fucking him, cuts his cock off, licks it, dresses in rubber and dumps his body. Diversions is for fans of the freaky and its star, Heather Deely, is a big titted slut. Bill Landis and Michelle Clifford via http://www.alphabluearchives.com/euro.html [Jun 2004]


This frigid part of Europe, comprising Sweden, Denmark and Holland, has always supplied the rest of the world with so much hot fucking. Maybe it's the climate, with Sweden being the coldest and the bandwagon leader of wild sex. Even revered arthouse godhead Ingmar Bergman made films filled with rape, exhibitionism, assfucking, humiliation, self mutilation and dirty talk.

Sweden exploded the celluloid sexual bomb in the U.S. at the close of the sixties with I am Curious Yellow, a social commentary featuring scenes of frank, graphic fucking. It set a court precedent and became a major boxoffice smash. Radley Metzger also imported Mac Ahlberg's I a Woman, the story of a nurse's various affairs, and it also proved successful. Sweden became synonymous with raunch.

In the 1970s, American porn stars were exported to Sweden, with the films imported back domestically. Mac Ahlberg's The Second Coming of Eva brings out the sexy stoner charms of Brigette Maier, placing her within a girl's school context and fleshing out the cast with pretty bodies. It's soft focus hard fucking from start to finish.

Bel Ami features international sex celeb Harry Reems in a performance that is classic Harry with lapses into the sublime. Harry displays his entire range, from the exclamatory silent burlesque faces he's so noted for to looking like Hunter Thompson in Fear and Loathing. Hiding behind red aviator sunglasses, Harry is tripping out of his mind in a foreign country as he's having a barrage of sexual encounters. The cast uses him as a Lucky Pierre. Harry is passed around from woman to woman with the nonchalance of a desert cart. Among the samplers is Maria Forsa, the epitome of the wholesome, blonde, naturalist Swede.

Denmark legalized pornography in the late sixties, celebrating the event with sex expos as documented by Sexual Freedom [Alex de Renzy] in Denmark. Since then, the Danes have wreaked all manner of sexual mayhem, from the giddy to the degenerate. The first to capitalize on the dirty Danes was furrier turned distributor Lee Hessel with his Cambist Pictures. Cambist brought the world the Ilsa movies and Eurosleaze classics like Vampyres. From 1970 to 1971, Cambist released a series of Danish imports with bouncy plotlines, outstandingly pretty girls, good production values and very hard sex, all with an undertow of the forbidden.

Danish Pastries centers around a girls school. Touches of kink like canings and uniforms abound, with a silly storyline about an aphrodisiac making the girls uncontrollably horny. 1001 Danish Delights was a major hit when first released. Its signature scene of a man fucking a woman atop a horse has been reproduced in Playboy and numerous sex in cinema books. The film takes a glossy approach to multipositional fucking. The most shocking Cambist film is Bordello. It manages to hint at everything taboo, from young stuff to animals, in a Manchurian Candidate flashcard way without showing anything but stealithy normal fucking.

The most controversial Danish import ever, won best film at the Copenhagen Wet Dream festival under its original title One Summer Day. Bluntly titled Animal Lover in the U.S., the movie documents the barnyard antics of Bodil Jensen. An attractive blonde farm girl, Bodil fucks a dog, rolls in shit as she blows a pig and lets a rubber filled with horse semen burst on her smiling face as a finale.

Bodil, who, in the film, claimed that she preferred animals as sex partners, was such a curiosity that she was even studied by swingin' sexologists Drs. Phyllis and Eberhardt Kronhausen. Her unexpected stardom gave pause to many questions. Why did she do this? What burned out the line between the socially acceptable and unacceptable so thoroughly in her? Even if Bodil liked it, the sadism inherent in the act of watching this woman fucking with an animal was the societal taboo stigma that drew and aroused so many male ticket buyers.

Distributed by Chelly Wilson's Variety Films, Animal Lover was a big hit. It played three San Francisco adult theaters simultaneously and the Mini Cinema in New York's Times Square. Animal Lover's run at the Mini was well publicized in New York's daily tabloids with ads featuring a cartoon of Bodil with a farm animal under each arm. After months at the Mini, Animal Lover was busted. A Manhattan judge found it obscene and ordered the print destroyed. Apparently, it was the print at the Mini, because a few weeks later, Animal Lover continued to play at Mrs. Wilson's adult theaters in Brooklyn and Queens.

To this day, top quality prints of Animal Lover change hands in the film collecting world and video companies will supply a copy of it if asked.

Holland's capital, Amsterdam, is known as Europe's sex and drug party house. So it's no surprise that it would also be a huge supplier of pornography. Amsterdam's most internationally famous pornography is Italian born Alberto Ferro, better known as Lasse Braun. Braun's French Blue strings together several of his most popular loops within a cinema verite structure of him directing his girlfriend and star, Brigette Maier. French Blue becomes a long meditation on the insertion of two cocks into one woman punctuated by outrageous bursts of peep booth fucking. The loops include Braun's costumed Casanova and the piss soaked Cake Orgy featuring Claudine Beccarie. Kinkorama also collects Braun's loops, with a connecting sequence of Gloria Leonard as a kinky shrink ironing out a couple's hangups.

Sensations is Braun's big budget orgy party, with Brigette Maier knocking around Amsterdam with an entourage of freaks. Although the surface lyricism keeps Braun's peeker zoom lens mellower, Sensations achieves a Boschian decadence. Junkies with hooks for hands, old men, assorted kinks including bondage and whipping, and Eurotrash women who party with coke on their pussies. Sensations was promoted with full page ads in the New York Times. The paper felt obliged to review it -- albeit, unfavorably -- and the film played Manhattan for almost a solid year.

The whole wave of European sex imports of the seventies changed everyone that witnessed them. Now, they've been thoroughly collected for the first time by Alpha Blue Archives, with video transfers culled from rare prints, that reproduce the theatrical viewing experience.

Copyright 2002 Alpha Blue Archives, accessed and copied for research purposes from http://www.alphabluearchives.com/euro.html [Jun 2004]

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