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related adult comics - Europe - comics - fumetti - erotic comics
authors: Enki Bilal - Guido Crepax - Tanino Liberatore - Jean Giraud - Milo Manara - Georges Pichard - Jacques Tardi -
magazines: Cannibale - Echo des Savanes - Frigidaire - Hara Kiri -
Barbarella (1962) - Jean-Claude Forest [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
Trundling Grunts - Glen Baxter [Amazon.com] [FR] [DE] [UK]
Illustration par Jacques Tardi tirée de Voyage au bout de la nuit, le texte de Louis-Ferdinand Céline
DescriptionA European Comic is a comic book that generally is comprised of a graphic novel, with album length stories (ca. 60 pages). European comics can be contrasted with superhero genre and manga, which are produced and read in English speaking countries and Japan, respectively. The European genre goes from the humoristic adventure vain (in its early form) to more adult subjects. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_comic [Apr 2005]
HistoryThe history of the European Comic coincides with the Franco-Belgian comics history. It started in Belgium in the 1920s, followed quickly by France. Nowadays, many other European countries have their own comics industry, like The Netherlands, Poland, Germany, Spain and Italy, amongst others.
Although a European country, the British production is not considered as a "European", since they have a specific production closer to the American genre. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_comic [Apr 2005]
Jacques de Loustal
Jacques de Loustal is one of the most popular contemporary artists. Loustal has been in Africa for a good part of his life, which is strongly reflected in his comics. While still studying architecture, he cooperated on the fanzine Cyclone. After cooperating on some other fanzines, he started making some short stories for Métal Hurlant, Pilote, Nitro, Chic, Zoulou and Libération. Some of his work for Métal Hurlant has been published in albums by Humanoïdes Associés, like 'New York', 'Miami' and 'Clichés d'Amour').
From 1984 Loustal became a frequent contributor to À Suivre, where he created 'Coeurs de Sable', 'Barney et la Note Bleue', 'Un Jeune Homme Romantique' and 'Kid Congo'. At the same time his work in present in L'Écho des Savanes. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, numerous albums appeared, to name a few: 'Zenata-Plage', 'Pension Maubeuge', 'V comme Engenance', 'Le Prince et Martin Moka', '19 Pastels' and 'Dune'. --http://www.lambiek.net/loustal.htm
1966 : Jodelle from Peellaert, after Sylvie Vartan
image sourced here.
Comics magazines [...]
Cover design by Tanino Liberatore for Italian magazine Frigidaire
more: "Echo des Savanes" , Frigidaire, Cannibale , Hara Kiri
Guido Crepax [...]Milanese architect and artist Guido Crepax started one of the first-ever erotic comic series, "Valentina." He has also adapted many pieces of erotic literature to comic form, including a number of works by De Sade, "The Story of O," and "Emmanuelle."
Lambiek is a European antiquarian comic shop. Located in Amsterdam, Lambiek has a huge selection of comics in many languages. Lambiek.net - the website - has about 4,990 of its pages listed in Google with hi-quality content. jahsonic, Jan 2004
Tanino Liberatore [...]
Born in April 1953 to Quadri (Chieti), Italy, Gaetano Liberatore, said Tanino, frequents the artistic school of Pescara (together to Andrea Pazienza) and from 1974 at 1978 he designs covers of disks and he collaborates with some agencies of publicity. He begins in 1978 as author of comic strips on the Cannibal magazine. Next he has collaborated to "Il Male" and he has been one of the fondadoris of "Frigidaire", on whose pages have continued Ranxerox, a kind of monster of Frankenstein punk created by Stefano Tamburini. Popular in France, where he has lived for years and where he is well soon imposed on the pages of the "Echo des Savanes" like one of the most interesting authors of his generation, Liberatore has also realized numerous brief histories without fixed characters, often characterized by a notable erotic position over that from abundant doses of violence. [...]
Jean Giraud aka Moebius [...]
Other major accomplishments of the Seventies included costume designs for Ridley Scott's film, Alien and storyboards and design for Jodorowsky's Dune and Disney's Tron, the launch of a new western strip with Charlier, Jim Cutlass, and collaborations with both Jodorowsky and Dan O'Bannon. Albums, portfolios, posters and more. Blueberry continued to appear fairly regularly in Pilote and he started his famous L'Incal series in 1981. This three-album series brought Giraud's fascination with crystals into his mainstream work - and, yes, by 1981 Moebius was as mainstream as Giraud. -- http://www.bpib.com/illustrat/giraud.htm
Beaux Arts Magazine [...]I can't imagine a fine art magazine in Britain doing a comics special.
Georges Pichard 1920-2003 [...]
Georges Pichard studied at l'École des Arts Appliqués in Paris. Later, he returned there as a teacher. He went into publishing, but in 1946 he switched to illustrating. He worked for various magazines and made his comic debut in 1956 with 'Miss Mimi'. In 1964, he met writer Jacques Lob, with whom he created some superhero parodies such as 'Ténébrax' and 'Submerman', before entering the field in which he became famous - erotic comics.
The first of this genre was 'Blanche Épiphanie' in 1967. In 1970, he created, together with writer Georges Wolinski, his most famous character: Paulette. Many other round-breasted beauties followed her, like Caroline Choléra, Marie-Gabrielle and Carmen. Pichard worked together with various writers, of whom Danie Dubos was one of the most interesting for her outstanding scenarios. Pichard adapted some of the world's famous erotic stories such as 'Mémoirs d'un Don Juan' by Guillaume Apollinaire and 'The Kama-Sutra' by Vatsyayana.
Pichard's style is immediately recognizable: he draws tall, well-endowed women, whose starry eyes with excessive make-up give them a teutonian and gothic look. Apart from being a master of the erotic genre, Pichard also illustrated countless books and magazines, drew humor cartoons and made lithographs in his more than 40-year long career.
Sixties [...]Times changes, and so comic books, in sixties. Examples of what we call today adult comics became more usual, opening space for the creation of stories such as French Barbarella, by Jean Claude Forest; argentine Mafalda, by Quino; Italian Valentina, by Guido Crepax; north American Fritz the Cat, by Robert Crumb (who introduced the underground in comic books); and for the embryonic works in science fiction and fantasy of Parisian penciller Jean Giraud, who later would be better known as Moebius. In all those works it could be seen sex, violence, intellectual insight, critics to the society, use of color and page design in very different ways and intensities than what has been done so far. Comic books are not more only for kids; they grew up and sophisticated themselves in unexpected ways. Adult comics existed since the first times, but they increase in number in the 70's. Conventions and exposition in museums began at the end of that decade, as much as academic studies. --Rafael de Viveiros Lima
Seventies, US and ItalyThe seventies are no more than a natural consequence of what had begun to happen in the sixties. Underground comics definitively conquered their space, been sold either in head shops or hand to hand. Crumb, Gilbert Shelton's Freak Brothers, S. Clay Wilson, Victor Moscoso, Dan Griffin are among the most known names, if you can say so, in underground. On the other side of the ocean, a few French pencillers -- Moebius, Phillipe Druillet, Jean Pierre Dionnet, and Bernard Farkas --, joined under the name of Les Humanoides Associés, created in 1974 a historic magazine, Métal Hurlant, that came to the USA in 1977, as Heavy Metal. Fantasy, science fiction, acid trips, rock'n'roll, naked bodies, incredible use of color, new ways of page design and literature are part of the confuse mix that made the success of the magazine. From Italy comes great fumetti, such as Ken Parker, by Berardi and Milazzo, Corto Maltese, by Hugo Pratt, and The Click, by Milo Manara. --Rafael de Viveiros Lima
The term "underground comics" is used to describe the industry of self-published or small press comic books that sprang up in the 1960s and has continued to the current day. Underground comics are noted for their lack of corporate control, which gives them the freedom to publish stories about literally anything, including subjects that many readers would consider shocking and offensive. These comics are often the produced by a single person, as opposed to mainstream comics, which are usually produced by a team including a writer, a penciler, an inker, a letterer, and an editor.
The initial wave of underground comics was written by and for the 1960s counter-culture and psychedelic movement, and a number of independent comics of this era were humorous (and unquestionably adult-oriented) stories about hippies and rebels who enjoyed the freedom of drugs, while putting up with persecution by evil police officers. As the genre grew and expanded, underground comics have ranged from small-press comics that grew to become mainstream (Elfquest and Cerebus the Aardvark), to comics created purely for artistic expression (Raw), to adult-oriented pornography and humor (Cherry Poptart and Xxxenophile). They have filled a creative niche left by the glut of superhero comic books published by mainstream companies such as DC and Marvel Comics.
The creators of underground comics have found various ways to publish their work without the backing of a major comic-book publisher. 'Mini-comics' are typically reproduced on a photocopier, hand-stapled and distributed by mail-order. More established creators can have their work published by one of the many small comics publishers (companies such as Fantagraphics Books, Rip-off Press, Slave Labor Graphics, Last Gasp and many others). The publishers also put together anthologies that collect short works from several different creators. More recently, there has been a surge of new creators posting their comics on the web, often for free or for a modest fee.
Some fans and artists use the term 'underground' comics to refer only to the first wave of independently produced comics, in the 1960s and 1970s. Later waves are sometimes referred to as 'independent', 'alternative', 'small press', or 'mini-' comics. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underground_comics 
Enki Bilal [...]
Enki Bilal was born in the former Yugoslavia but he moved early in his life to Paris, France. He has drawn a lot of sci-fi cartoons but the social critical tendencies are typical to all of his works. He has been in a very fruitful collaboration with the scenarist P.Christin. The album Froid Équateur is the third part of the Nikopol trilogy, and was chosen as "The book of the year" in France, the first cartoon book ever to achieve this honour. Bilal's style is very elaborate and visual, and the grave atmosphere is characteristic to all his works, especially the ones that directly criticize political systems.
A page from the album Partie de Chasse, demonstrating Bilal's typical layout. The book "Hunting party" was a sensation when it was published, and it marked the beginning of a new genre of cartoons. The leaders of the Soviet Block gather to a remote place for a hunting trip. During the trip, the history of violence and subjugation begins to unfold through the conversations and flashbacks. Combining fact and fiction, Bilal creates an uncanny portrait of the demoralizing effect of power.
The underground of Paris of the next century: astronauts, aliens, destruction, ancient Egyptian gods, rotten political systems and violence make a great mixup in the first book of the Nikopol trilogy. From La Foire aux immortels.
Gore-filled hallucinations invade the life of a woman whose relationship with an alien breaks abruptly in the second part of the Nikopol trilogy. From La Femme piège © 1988 by Les Humanoïdes accosiés.
Bilal seems to be another fan of Gaudían architecture. Opening scene from the book La ville que n'existait pas. Another book with social critics. This time a benefactress fullfills the dreams of the workers of an industrial village. The allegory is easy to point out. --Teemu Mäkinen
Richard Felton OutcaultThe Yellow Kid created by Richard Felton Outcault in 1895 is recognized as the first "comic strip" or "comic book". Outcalt was the first person to use the balloon, a space where what the characters said was written.
1550Around 1550, the first comic strips were printed with wood blocks. The phrase "comics" and "comic strip" was first used around 1900 in the United States, at that time comics were all funny or comic. Comic books are collections of comic strips.
Concerning an aged public, the monthly « Hara-Kiri » published by Square, paved a way in September 1960 and shattered the French press. A satiric paper which quickly took the title of « stupid and nasty », it imposed the idea that a comic could carry political messages. The ignored cartoonists Cabu, Georges Wolinski, Gébé and Reiser are allowed, among the others, the gowth of burlesque and black humour. Then, published by the same team, Square, came « Charlie Monthly » (1969) which was allied with the avant-garde of that period and the republishing of the American Golden Age like C. Schultz's Peanuts. This paper merged with « Pilote ». At the same time, « Charlie Weekly » (1970) was born, challenging its ban on publication and thus started to acquire an unprecedented popularity.
For their part, N.Mandryka, Gotlib and C.Brétecher established Echo des Savanes in 1972 with Fromage publications. The magazine shattered all norms and proposed, immodest and scatological, short narrations. In comparison with the reports and articles, came other creators of comics like R.Pétillon, Moebius, J.Teulé…, and was directed much later towards a more sophisticated eroticism (M.Manara, A.Varennes…).
Gotlib created the magazine « Fluide Glacial » after having left « L'Echo des Savanes ». Along with a childhood friend, J.Diament, he founded the A.U.D.I.E. publications (Amusement, hUmour, Derision, hIlarity and all sorts of things) and launched the first issue in 1975. Devoted mainly to a humouristic genre, « Fluide Glacial » continued to attract its public.
The same year, the quartet (The Humanoïdes Associate), J.Giraud, J.P.Dionnet, P.Druillet and B.Farkas brought a new conception: science-fiction. They created the paper « Métal Hurlant » (1975), first specialising in this theme (Moebius…), later diversifying (F'Murr, Alexis...).
The increasing number of books in the 80s brought about a loss of interest among the adults but they did not totally disappear. There was always « Fluide Glacial » and « L'Echo des savanes » and in 1992 « Charlie Hebdo » was republished after 12 years and opened the path for many others
French Vampirella magazine (1970 - 1976)
Vampirella magazine (France, 01/1970), published by Publicness
image sourced here.
Vampirella est la 3ème revue d'horreur publiée par les éditions publicness en 1971, apres Eerie et Creepy. Elles reprennent certaines histoires des versions américaines des editions Warren. On y trouve les signatures de neal adams, steve ditko, reed crandal ou esteban maroto...les editions françaises alternent bd et reportages photos sur les grands films fantastiques.Quand à l'héroine du titre, Vampirella, elle connaitra plusieurs scenaristes et dessinateurs mais ses meilleures prestations seront dûes à archie goodwin pour le scenario et josé gonzales pour le dessin.. Texte Pascal A. --http://www.encyclobd.com/biblio/album.html?id=55569 [Jun 2005]
Vampirella Magazine (1969-1983) est le premier magazine paru chez Warren. L’éditeur (déjà "coupable" des parutions horrifiques Eerie et Creepy) ruse en publiant ce magazine en noir & blanc. Une façon comme une autre de contourner le Comics Code qui ne considérait pas les publications N&B. Le magazine actuel rendra hommage à son modèle jusque dans le format : beaucoup plus grand qu’un comic-book classique.
Warren mettra la clé sous le paillasson en 1983 après 112 numéros de la série (le nombre est loin d’être certifié à 100%, l’auteur de Vampirella assurant qu’il n’y a eu que 108 numéros). --http://www.france-comics.com/article.php3?id_article=2151 [Jun 2005]
PUBLICNESS (Paris, France) published issues of Vampirella numbered zero through at least number 26, at least five collected "albums", and a special, all from 1970 to 1976. Each issue drew three to six stories, including a Vampirella story, from the contemporaneous Warren Vampirella (occasionally from Warren's Eerie or Creepy as well) - all translated into French. The rest of the content was comprised of film-related articles and reviews as well as a few pages of advertisements. The film-related content occupied a significant number of pages - beginning in no. 1 with a series entitled "Vampirama" (6 numbered installments), followed, beginning in no. 9, with a series entitled "Cinéma bis" (at least 16 numbered installments). An early series in nos. 1 through 8, entitled "L'écran des maniaques", featured principally stills from films. The film content featured. Other regular review columns included: Courrier [Letters] (in about 13 issues), Livres [Books] (in about 3 issues), Disques [Discs] (in about 4 issues), Concerts (in at least 1 issue). --http://isd.usc.edu/~shoaf/vampirella/chrono01.htm [Jun 2005]
see also: comics - American comics - European comics - vampire
French Eerie magazine (1969 - 1973)
Eerie magazine (France, 04/1969), published by Publicness
image sourced here.
Les années 70 : la décennie de toutes les contestations
BD alternative et Fanzines
Le journal Actuel, fondé en 1970 et représentatif de la contre-culture française, traduit un grand nombre d'histoires issues de l'underground américain et publie quelques récits dessinés par Marcel Gotlib, Francis Masse et Nikita Mandryka.
a bande dessinée alternative se développe également à travers quelques supports plus éphémères comme la Gueule ouverte ou Zinc - on y retrouve les premiers travaux de Soulas, Poussin ou Nicoulaud. Publicness propose pour sa part Eerie, Creepy et Vampirella, trois magazines consacrés essentiellement à la bande dessinée d'horreur en provenance des Etats-Unis ou d'Espagne. Dès cette époque, les fanzines (abrévation de fanatique et magazine) se multiplient et alternent les propos lapidaires, les études sérieuses et des bandes dessinées conçues par des amateurs - dont certains deviendront célèbres, comme Philippe Vuillemin, Bernard Hislaire, Loustal, Yves Chaland, Serge Clerc ou Tito. --http://www.loustal.nl/les_annees_60.htm [Jun 2005]
see also: comics - American comics - European comics
Creepy magazine (France, 03/1969), published by Publicness
image sourced here.
In 1964 publisher James Warren launched a new comic book which was unlike any other at that time. It was entirely in black & white, it was in a magazine size format, and it was done without the seal of the Comics Code Authority. Its name was CREEPY
His timing was perfect. In the 1950's, EC Comics (under editor William Gaines, who later went on to found MAD magazine) published a line of shock/horror titles such as Tales From The Crypt, Vault Of Horror, Shock SuspenStories and Haunt Of Fear, hosted by ghoulish personas such as the Crypt Keeper and the Old Witch. They were popular but widely controversial due to their graphic depictions of gore. Rising pressure forced conservative leaders to take notice of what their innocent children were reading. The resulting movement drove these horror comics out of business.
A few years passed. Then the early 1960's brought a revival of interest in horror. Almost all of the classic monster movies of the 1930's and 1940's were released to television. Usually featured on matinee bills, many shows were hosted by frightful characters modeled after vampires, ghouls and mad scientists, much as EC and Suspense Radio had done. They gained new and widespread popularity. In England, Hammer Films followed this success with its own new series of horror films. Even two of the big three American television networks got in on the act, giving viewers The Addams Family and The Munsters. --http://www.horrorseek.com/horror/unclecreepy/unc.html [Jun 2005]
Famous Monsters of Filmland was a magazine started in 1958 by publisher James Warren and editor Forrest J Ackerman. It was conceived as a one-shot publication with no discernible future, but the first issue was so successful that it required a second printing to fulfill public demand and its established future as part of American culture were immediately obvious to both men. Warren and Ackerman eventually became millionaires through the property, and spinoff magazines such as Spacemen, Famous Westerns of Filmland, Screen Thrills Illustrated, Creepy, Eerie, and Vampirella. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Famous_Monsters_of_Filmland [Jun 2005]
Forrest J. Ackerman
Forrest J Ackerman (also Forrest J. Ackerman), born November 24, 1916 and still living and active, is often called "Forry" or "4e" or "4SJ", and is a legendary science fiction fan, as well as an occasional author, actor, producer (Vampirella), magazine editor and literary agent of many of the science fiction greats. Although he is best known to baby-boomers as editor-writer of the magazine Famous Monsters of Filmland, this is actually only one facet of his enormous influence on the origination, organization, and spread of science fiction fandom and of science fiction as a respectable literary, art and film genre from its inception in the early 1920s to the present. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forrest_J._Ackerman [Jun 2005]
see also: comics - American comics - European comics
In 1982, manga modernist Katshuhiro Otomo created a worldwide literary sensation when Japan's Kodansha Publications released the first volume of his 3000 page sci-fi fable of the apocalypse, Akira. Few westerners had experienced manga (Japanese comics) before Akira, and its rocketing ascent through cultural divides helped impress a cynical world that had long been convinced that pictures in books should be relegated to children's stories. Now pictures were being used to tell one of man's most ... --From the Publisher
A twisted old man, gifted with extrasensory powers, silently holds sway over an entire block of apartments. The occupants are puppets for him to control. Life is his to give...and to take. But suddenly there is a new voice in his head, and before he knows it, a young girl with her own battery of psychic abilities has arrived to challenge him! Soon, the sprawling complex becomes a battleground between two minds possessing incredible, unimaginable power. Winner of Japan`s Science Fiction Grand Prix award, the first graphic novel ever awarded such an honor, Domu comes from the boundless imagination of Katsuhiro Otomo, renowned creator of the internationally acclaimed graphic-fiction epic, Akira. A work of rare strength, Domu is both visually stunning and emotionally gripping, a terrifying tale of the paranormal set amongst the human isolation of modern urban life. --Book Description
This revised edition was published on December 9, 1999, the birthday of `John Willie`, as well as the twenty-fifth anniversary of the publication of the first edition. It contains 368 pages, which includes a wealth of previously unpublished and uncollected work by the artist. Also included in this expanded edition are 36 black and white reproductions of drawings and paintings (circa 1935-50), most from original artwork and all but 2 have never been published before. Along with the black and white illustrations are an equal number of full-color pages many of which are previously unpublished. The biographical introduction has been expanded to include much new information about J.W. - including 4 previously unpublished photographs of the artist! --amazon.com
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