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opposition - oppression
Tian'anmen Square, Bejing, China, 5 June 1989: "The Unknown Rebel" single-handedly halts the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiananmen_Square_protests_of_1989 [Jan 2005]
Resistance movementA resistance movement is a group dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country. It can also be any organized effort by supporters of a common goal against a constituted authority. This can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. Some resistance movement are underground organization engaged in a struggle for national liberation in a country under military or totalitarian occupation.
Tactics of resistance movements range from passive resistance and industrial sabotage to what would today be regarded as guerrilla (or guerilla) warfare and terrorism. Resistance movements conduct sabotage and harassment. Contemporary acts of a group that considers itself a resistance movement are usually condemned as terrorism by the government they are directed against, even when such attacks are directed against military targets.
In World War II, many countries had resistance movements dedicated to fighting the German invaders. There was also an anti-Nazi German resistance movement within Germany itself. Although Britain was not invaded in World War II, preparations were made for a British resistance movement in the event of a German invasion. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistance_movement [Aug 2004]
Jazz and French Resistance
With the rise of the Nazis throughout Europe, many Black expatriates returned home, anticipating better chances with the old Klan than with the new Reich. Notably, Josephine Baker and Thelonious Monk [Monk never fought in the resistance] stayed and fought with the French Resistance. Descending on terrified Parisians, the Nazis wasted no time shutting down their vibrant cabaret society and nightlife- jazz was first on their list. As a collaboration of Black and Jewish musicians from America, jazz represented the most glaring offense to Hitler's vision of a "Pure Society". Because every revolution must have its soundtrack, jazz soon became the theme music of the French Resistance. --http://www.sistersf.com/articles/discoPart1.php
Underground [...]The underground is sometimes a nickname for a resistance movement: "the underground" is also a common name for World War II resistance movements. By extension, the term was also applied to counter-cultural movement(s) many of which sprang up during the 1960s. In a similar sense, the Underground Railroad was an United States anti-slavery movement which helped slaves escape. Underground Resistance is also the name of a techno formation from Detroit. --wikipedia.org + jahsonic.com, Jan 2004
Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Postwar Britain (1976) - Stuart Hall
Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Postwar Britain (1976) - Stuart Hall [Amazon US] [FR] [DE] [UK]
This book is a must read for students of fashion, subculture, identity, and pop culture. Although the style of writing and some of the conclusions read as somewhat "old-fashioned", it was ground-breaking work at the time, one of the first serious scholarly treatments of youth and pop culture. More importantly, many of its arguments are still very relevant and need to be reconsidered in contemporary literature. The collection also discusses many styles which are all but forgotten to a younger audience and the variety British styles in the 60s is an education in itself for people who often think of past decades as having a particular "look". Excellent sociological analysis blended with ethnographic description. --A reader from Newfield, amazon.com
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