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Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion: New Volume 1 - Eadweard Muybridge [Amazon.com]
DefinitionAnimation is the illusion of motion created by the consecutive display of images of static elements. In film and video production, this refers to techniques by which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually. These frames may be generated by computers, or by photographing a drawn or painted image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed, there is an illusion of continuous movement due to the phenomenon known as persistence of vision. Generating such a film tends to be very labour intensive and tedious, though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process. --http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animation [Mar 2006]
Thaumatrope (1825) - John Ayrton Paris
Phenakistoscope (1832) - Joseph Plateau
images sourced here.
History of animation 1645 - 1899
- The magic lantern is invented.
- The magic lantern theatre, the Phantasmagoria, opens in Paris.
- Peter Mark Roget - an examiner of physiology, explained that an image was retained by the retina for fractions of a second before being replaced by another image and that if these images appeared at a sufficent rate of change, the veiwer had a perception of motion when looking at still images.
- John A. Paris - an English physician, created the prototype of optical toys, the thaumatrope.
- Joseph Plateau - a Belgian scientist, invented the prototype of optical toys, the phenakistiscope
- Horner developed the zeotrope from Plateau's phenakistiscope
- Coleman Sellers - an American, patented the kinematoscope
- Emile Reynaud - a French precision-mechanics shop apprentice, built a device known as a praxinoscope
- Eadweard Muybridge - a British photographer, invented the zoopraxiscope. 1885 - 1899
- The Reverend Hannibal Goodwin invetned the transparent celluloid flexible film which permitted the recording of succesive images on one long strip.
- Thomas Edison started research work into motion pictures
- Emile Reynaud modified the praxinoscope and gave it a new name, the theatre optique (optical theatre). The first film shown was Un bon bock (A Good Beer)
- Thomas Edison announced that his kinetoscope projected a 50 foot length of film in approximately 13 seconds
- George Eastman began the manufacture of photographic strips using a nitro-cellulosebase.
- The invention of a camera that was capable of taking (manually) from sixteen to twenty photographs per second
- Alfred Clark - an Amercian, discovered that the crank of the camera could be stopped and started which allowed the images being filmed to be changed which resulted in uninterrupted motion during projection.
- Louis and Augustine Lumiere issued a patent for a device called a cinematograph - a device capable fo projecting moving pictures.
- Herman Castor patented the mutoscope.
- The history of clay animation appears , when a pliable, oil-based modeling clay called "plasticine" was invented.
- Thomas Edison introduces the motion-picture projector.
- Thomas Armat designed the vitascope which was to have a major influence on all subsequent projectors.
- George Melies accidentally dicovered the process of having one scene dissolve into the next.
- George Melies - A French illusionist, is credited as the first artist to make objects move. He animated letters of the alphabet.
- Arthur Melbourne Cooper - a Briton, made the first animated film Matches: An Appeal and created the animation using matches.
http://schools.spsd.sk.ca/mount/hoffman/Animation/Reference/History.html [Mar 2005]
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